DIRECT CRITERIA FOR AMBIGUITY BY D.A.CRUSE

Direct Criteria for Ambiguity

Three different types of criteria for ambiguity will be proposed. It may ultimately be possible to show that they all reduce to a single basic criterion, but here they will be presented separately. Generally speaking, unless there are specific reasons why one or other of the criteria should be inapplicable (some of these reasons will be discussed below, we shall expect an ambiguous item to satisfy all the criteria.

The first criterion is frequently difficult to apply in practice, but it is conceptually important. It is that the senses of an ambiguous word form should not in every case be totally conditioned by their contexts, unlike the interpretations which arise as a result of contextual modulation. This means that an ambiguous word form set in a disambiguating context may well carry more information than can be accounted for in terms of interaction between the context-independent meaning of the word form, and the semantic properties of the context. In cases of contextual modulations, on the other hand, all information is derived from these sources.

Consider sentences 16 and 17:

16. Arthur washed and polished the car.

17. John lubricated the car.

The most likely interpretation of 16 is that not every part of the car underwent washing and polishing, but the exterior surface only. What is the basis for this conclusion? It is derived entirely from the general meaning of car, together with the semantic properties of the context (remember that general knowledge concerning cars and operations carried out on them is, on the view of meaning adopted in this book, embedded in the meaning of car, wash, polish, etc). A similar account can be given of the most likely interpretation of car in 17. Or take the case of monarch in 14 (repeated here for convenience):

14. The Ruritanian monarch is expecting her second baby.

We can be virtually certain that the monarch in question is a queen, because of the restricting effect of the context on the general meaning of monarch. Notice that a similar interpretation would arise, and no loss of information would result, if monarch were replaced by a synonym or paraphrase such as sovereign, or crowned head (and automobile would interact in the same way with the context if it were substituted for car in 16 and 17). Contrast these, however, with bank in 18 and 19:

18. Her husband is the manager of a local bank.

19. At this point, the bank was covered with brambles.

Let us try to account for the (most probable) different interpretations of bank in the way that we did for car. It is first necessary to decide on a synonym or paraphrase of the context-invariant meaning of bank. This already poses problems, but let us say, for the sake of argument, that it is equivalent to place. We can then observe the effect of substituting place for bank in 18 and 19:

20. Her husband is the manager of a local place.

21. At this point, the place was covered with the brambles.

There is quite clearly a loss of information, so we have failed to show that the interpretations of bank are the result of contextual modulation of a general meaning. It may be concluded, therefore, that the different contexts are selecting discrete senses of bank. Another instance of incomplete contextual determination is to be observed with dog. Let us for the moment take it as established that dog has a general sense, denoting the whole species, irrespective of sex. In sentences such as 22, however, dog has a more specific meaning, and refer only to males:

22. John prefers bitches to dogs

Now it might be argued that the resultant sense of dog here is caused by contextual modulation of the general sense: dog cannot in this context refer to females if logical consistency is to be preserved, which leaves only males as possible referents. Consider now, however,23:

23. Incredibly, John prefers an aged, half-blind bitch to a dog, as his canine companion.

If the interpretation of dog in this sentence were the result of contextual modulation of the general sense, it ought to include reference to, for instance, young females with good eyesight. But once again, it refers to male dogs only. This reading cannot be explained by contextual modulation, so it must be the result of selection from a set of discrete possibilities. In fact, the same is true of 22. That contextual modulation of the general sense of dog cannot explain the specific interpretation in 22 is shown by the lack of a parallel specific interpretation of canine (in its jocular use as a noun ) when it is substituted for dog:

24. ? John prefers bitches to canines.

(We shall consider below why 24 should be anomalous)

Some understanding of the way the semantic effects of selection may be independent of, and indeed may transcend, those properties of the context which are responsible for the selection can be gleaned from the following analogy. Suppose that is known that a certain event is to occur on a certain day, but may take place at only one of two possible times, namely, 12.00 n00n or 12.00 midnight. If one were subsequently to receive a report that when the event occurred, the sun had set, one would be able to infer that it had taken place at exactly 12.00 midnight. The precision of this inference goes well beyond what is explicitly present in the report, which acts rather like a trigger setting off one of two preexisting possibilities. In a similar manner, the context of dog in 22 and 23 acts like a trigger which activates one of a set of pre-existing bundles of semantic properties, each having a precision and richness not directly sanctioned by the context. In principle all ambiguous items should be capable of manifesting these characteristics.

Our second criterion for ambiguity is that separate senses should be independently maximisable. Under certain conditions, the application of certain terms must be maximised within the current universe of discourse, even at the expense of oddness. Consider 25 (which resembles 24):

25: ? Mary likes mares better than horses.

One might have thought that the context makes it clear that the context makes it clear that horse  in to be interpreted as “stallions”; however, such an interpretation is not available for this type of sentence. The reason is that since mares have been mentioned, they fall within the current universe of discourse, and by the rule of maximization (the details of which are not entirely clear) must be included in the reference of horses. This, of course, leads to logical inconsistency, and hence oddness. (Notice, however, that there is no anomaly if the reference of horses is EXPLICITLY restricted: Mary prefers mares to horses which can sire foals or Mary prefers mares to these horses uttered in a situation where only stallions are present.) On the other hand; 26, unlike 25, is perfectly normal:

26. John prefers bitches to dogs.

The general sense of dog would of course give rise to anomaly in 26, because of the rule of maximisation. The reason 26 is not odd is that dog has another sense, which even when maximised excludes bitches, and this is automatically selected by the context. By contrast, 27 selects the general reading of dog (the specific reading would be odd here, but not for reasons connected with maximisation):

27. Arthur breeds dogs.

Thus 26 and 27 taken together constitute strong evidence that dog is ambiguous.

The existence of two independent senses of dog, each independently maximisable, is responsible for the fact that A’s question in 28, if the dog in question is female, can be truthfully answered either ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ (depending on which sense the respondent believes the questioner to be intending):

28. A: Is that a dog?

B: (i) Yes, it’s a spaniel.

(ii) No, it’s a bitch.

There is no parallel set of circumstances in which the question in 29 can be truthfully answered ‘Yes’ or ‘No’:

29: A: Is the subject of this poem a monarch?

B: (i) Yes, it is a queen.

(ii) ? No, it is a king.

Because there is only one sense of monarch, namely, the general one, and because its reference must be maximised, if the subject of the poem was a king or a queen, then ‘Yes’ is the only truthful answer. As with 28, situations can be imagined in which the questions in 30 and 31 can be truthfully answered either negatively or positively:

30. A: Has Charles changed his position?

B: (i) Yes, he’s now sitting next to the chairman.

(ii) No, he still supports corporal punishment.

31. A: Did Arthur make it to the bank?

B: (i) Yes, he’s a strong swimmer.

(ii) No, he was arrested as soon as he came out of the water.

The same should be true, in principle, of any truly ambiguous expression.12

Ambiguity tests of the third kind utilities the fact that independent senses of a lexical form are antagonistic to one another; that is to say, they cannot be brought into play simultaneously without oddness. Contexts which do activate more than one sense at a time give rise to the variety of oddness we have labeled zeugma:

32.? John and his driving license expired last Thursday.

The simultaneous bringing into play of two senses can be effected either by coordination, as in 32, where John and his driving license select different senses of the verb expire, or by anaphora, as in 33:

33.? John’s and his driving license expired last Thursday; so did John.

So did is an anaphoric verb phrase; that is to say, its referential properties operate not directly, but indirectly, through a previously mentioned verb phrase, in this case expired last Thursday, which must be re-applied, this time with John as subject. But since this demands a different sense from the one appropriate to its first occurrence, the result is zeugma.

A general term cannot give rise to zeugma in this way:

34. My cousin, who is pregnant, was born on the same day as Arthur’s, who is the father.

Arthur’s refers anaphorically through cousin. The context makes it clear that the two cousins are of different sexes; however, the sentence is not zeugmatic, so we may conclude that cousin does not have two senses “make cousin” and “ female cousin”.

Antagonism of senses also lies behind the so-called identity test for ambiguity. 13 In 35, each part of the sentence contains an occurrence, either direct, or indirect via anaphora, of the ambiguous adjective light, and can therefore in theory be interpreted in two ways:

35. Mary is wearing a light coat; so is Sue.

However, the whole sentence does not have four (i.e.2 X2) interpretations, but two only. This is because the same reading of light must be selected in each part: either both ladies are wearing “undark” coats, or both are wearing ‘unheavy” coats. What is termed the crossed interpretation, with each part of the sentence manifesting a different sense, is prohibited. This prohibition is not a mysterious property of the grammatical process of anaphora; it is simply a consequence of the fact that light resists, so it were, the simultaneous activation of more than one of its senses. General terms allow crossed interpretations:

36. Mary has adopted a child; so has Sue.

There are four possible distributions of sexes compatible with this sentence, since there is no requirement that the two children should be of the same sex.

Some difficult cases

In this section the operation of ambiguity tests will be illustrated by applying them to a selection of difficult cases. The difficulties mostly concern tests based on the antagonism of sister-senses (i.e. senses associated with a single lexical form). It is not possible simply to dispense with such tests, because there are occasions, especially when dealing with highly context-bound readings which do not appear in ambiguous sentences, when they are the only practicable way of diagnosing ambiguity.

I.            The first example involves the unit-type ambiguity. This is quite easy to demonstrate by means of the Yes/No-test:

37. A: Is this the jacket you want?

B: (i) Yes. (it’s the type I want)

(ii) No. (this particular one is shop-soiled)

But it is much more difficult to show antagonism; many contexts which might be expected to manifest it do not:

38. this is our best-selling jacket: do try it on.

Jacket in the first clause clearly must have a type reading-one cannot repeatedly sell the same individual jacket. One might have thought that only a particular unit of the type could be ‘tried on’,  but that seems not to be the case. One must beware of drawing hasty conclusions in this area. As it happens, it is possible to find contexts which isolate the two readings, and when these are yoked together, zeugma results. Sentence 39 allows only the ‘unit’ reading for skirt 39 (this seems to be a property of belong):

39. That skirt belongs to Mary.

Sentence 40 can only bear a type reading:

40. My sister has the skirt Sue is wearing now.

Try to link these two readings together anaphorically, and the antagonism becomes plain:

41. ? the skirt sue is wearing belongs to Mary; my sister has it, too.

II.            It not infrequently happens that ambiguous readings are related in such a way that in certain contexts one reading entails the other. Such cases are a common cause of apparent failure of the zeugma-test 9often called the ‘pun-test’) or the identity test. The two readings of dog are a case in point.14In 42, for example, it appears that a crossed interpretation is possible, in that Mary’s dog could well be male, and Bill’s female:

42. Mary bought a dog; so did Bill.

Does this contradict the evidence presented above that dog is ambiguous? The answer is that it does not. When dog occurs in a sentential context in which the specific interpretation entails the general interpretation, we cannot be sure which sense is operative when reference is made to a male dog: the two senses under these circumstances are effectively inseparable. Hence the normality of 42 when the dogs referred to are of opposite sexes cannot be used as evidence against the existence of two senses of dog, since it can be fully accounted for by claiming that only the general sense is operative. However, the situation is much clearer when dog occurs in a context where neither sense entails the other, as in 43:

43. Arthur wants to know if that is a dog; so does Mike.

A moment’s thought will convince the reader that the crossed reading is prohibited here; this sentence cannot be used to describe a situation where Arthur knows that the animal in question is an Alsatian, but in unsure of its sex, while Mike knows that it is female, but thinks it might be a wolf. The pun-test, too, demands non-entailing contexts:

44a. Dogs can become pregnant at 12 months. (General sense only)

b. Dogs mature later than bitches. (specific sense only).

c. ? Dogs can become pregnant at 12 months, but mature later than bitches.

III.            Entailment between readings also bedevils attempts to demonstrate antagonism between the “exactly” and “at least” interpretations of numerals and other expressions of quantity.15The Yes/No-test suggests that this is a genuine ambiguity:

45. A: Have you got £10 in your wallet?

B: (i) Yes. In fact, I’ve got £12.

(ii) No. I’ve got £12

However, John has (exactly) £10 entails John has (at least) £10, which perhaps explains why 46 is not zeugmatic:

46. You need £100 in your account to qualify for free banking.

Arthur has it, now that he has added £50 to the £50 that was already there.

The first mention of £100 clearly demands an “at least” interpretation what Arthur has is “exactly” £100; one might therefore not expect the it of the second sentence to be able to refer anaphorically to £100 in the first sentence without antagonism. However, because of the entailment referred to above, the original and anaphoric occurrences of £100 can both be given the “at least”interpretation, thus avoiding antagonism. It is possible to construct isolating contexts which reveal antagonism, but they are extremely cumbersome:

47a. John, with £11, and Bill, with £12, both have the £10 necessary to open a savings account.     (“at least”)

b. Tom, too, now has £10, having spent £2 out of his original £12. (“exactly” reading forced by now) necessary to open a savings account.     (“at least”)

c. ? John, with £11, has the £10 necessary to open a savings account, Tom, too, now has it, having spent £2 out of his original £12.

IV.            The case of door is interesting (a group of related words such as window, hatch, sky-light, etc. behave similarly). Two senses of door may be observed in 48, which can be truthfully answered either ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ in the following situation: the door in question has a ‘cat-flap’, and is standing open: the cat goes through the cat-flap, but not through the doorway:

48. Did the cat go through the door?

Once again, difficulties arise with the antagonism criteria. It might be predicted, for instance, that 49 would be zeugmatic, since what is smashed (the door-panel) is different from what is bricked up (the doorway):16

49. The door was smashed in so often that it had to be bricked up.

But there is no anomaly of any kind. Again, it appears that contexts of a particular kind must be avoided if the test is to succeed. In this case it is the part-whole relationship which is to blame. For certain predicates, applicability to parts entails applicability to wholes corresponding to the parts. Thus, if I touch the table-leg, by doing so I necessarily touch the table; if the tea-pot handle is broken, so is the tea-pot, and so on. It seems likely that this entailment is interfering with antagonism in49- both events are interpreted as happening to the ‘global door’, of which the door-panel is a part. The remedy, as before, is to avoid such contexts, and to use, to isolate the senses, only those contexts in which part does not entail whole (or, better still, contexts where part entails not-whole). When this done, the antagonism of the senses is easily seen:

50. ? We took the door off its hinges and then walked through it.

The moral to be drawn from these examples is that apparent compatibility of readings must not be hastily accepted as proof of generality: each case must be  examined carefully to determine whether there are special factors preventing the appearance of zeugma. It may be reasonably confidently assumed that the different criteria for ambiguity which have been described  in fact are sensitive to the same underlying semantic properties, and that in the absence of ‘special factors’ will provide identical diagnoses.

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CASUAL REGISTER

Understanding language registers as a means to more effective communication
Learners become familiar with registers of language through class discussion and exposure to examples of a common fairy tale written in two different registers. Working in small groups, learners then translate a story into two different registers.

Learning Objective:
Learners will have a clear understanding of registers of language, will be able to distinguish between different registers, and will be able to utilize these registers for more effective communication.

Primary Skill:
Communication

Secondary Skills:
Convey ideas in writing, Speak so others can understand, Cooperate with others

Learner Needs & Goals:
Learners in this class have a variety of needs and goals. Some want to improve basic skills so they can qualify for an entry-level job that does not require GED certification, but that requires basic math and/or literacy skills. Most of the learners are working for GED certification so they can qualify for a job that requires a GED. Others want their GED certification so they can obtain a better job or advance in their present job. This activity is designed to assist all learners in becoming more effective communicators.

Learning Activity Description:
I. Introduction to Language Registers
Facilitator will encourage recognition of language registers with the following questions: “Do you speak the same way at home as you speak here in the classroom?” “Do you speak the same way with your children as you speak with your adult friends?” “Do you speak differently when talking with your child’s teacher or doctor than when you are chatting with a friend on the telephone?” Facilitator explains that we all speak differently in different situations. These ways of speaking differently are called registers of language. Every language has five registers. Facilitator gives each learner a handout outlining and defining the five registers. Discuss each register in detail.

Discuss some of the ways we can distinguish between registers, and the way this influences our language. For instance, the word “woman” — how many words can you think of that all mean “woman?” How about “lady,” “chick,” “gal,” “female,” or “girl?” Ask if learners can think of others. Ask which they would prefer to be called and which they would NOT like to be called. Can learners see how this might cause communication difficulties in a workplace setting? Or in a school situation?

Introduce the idea of all the words we have to describe “death.” Terms like “croaked,” “kicked the bucket,” “bought the farm,” and how about “passed on” “passed away” or “crossed over.” Ask if learners can think of others. If they were describing the death of a loved one, would they use a word like “croaked?” How about if they were describing the death of someone you don’t particularly like or someone they didn’t know well? Ask if learners see how emotions can influence choice of register.

Further the discussion by asking: “Which of these registers do you use most often at home?” “Which is used most often in school?” “Which is used most often in business or workplace situations?”

Make learners aware that schools use formal register and that standardized tests are written in formal register, and, if they go for a job interview, they will want to use formal register with the person who is conducting the interview. This could make the difference in whether or not they get the job. The use of formal register allows one to do better in school, to score higher on tests, and even to get the more desirable job. Learners will be able to communicate more effectively with all types of people in many different situations if they understand these registers.

II. Recognizing Language Registers
Give each learner the handouts of Little Red Riding Hood written in formal register and in casual register. Have the versions read aloud. After the stories have been read, emphasize that in the formal register version, the story starts at the beginning of the action and then develops in a logical pattern to the end. Events are told in the way that they happen. In the casual register version, point out that the story begins by telling the ending first. This is the most emotional part of the story. Notice how the characters are described and events are related. Discuss which story is the most fun, which has the most interesting characters, and which has the most logical order.

III. Using Language Registers
Following this discussion, divide the class into groups of 3 or 4. Each group will work together to write two versions of a story. The first version will be in the casual register and then the group will “translate” the story to the formal register. This can be a simple fairy tale, a story from a book you have read, or a story that you create.

After the groups have completed their stories, one volunteer from each group will read the formal register version of the story and one volunteer will read the casual register version. Group discussion will end the activity.

Materials and Resources:
Book: A framework for understanding and working with students and adults from poverty (Copyright, 1995, Ruby K. Payne, RFT Publishing)

Handouts:(a) Language Registers, (b) Story in formal register,(c) Story in casual register

Attachments: (For Internet Explorer users, right click on link then choose “Save target as”. For Netscape users, just hold down the shift key and click on the link.)

Assessment:
Learners were able to recognize, compare and contrast language registers, as evidenced by group discussion; they were able to recognize the significance of using formal register in work and school situations. Learners demonstrated their ability to work effectively as a group to produce two writings in different registers and to choose one representative from the group to act as group spokesperson.

Reflection:
This activity generated lots of group discussion; reading the two versions of the stories aroused much interest and class participation in the ensuing discussion. Their oral communication skills were spotlighted and enhanced by this activity. They also enjoyed working together on this project, and produced some very interesting and humorous stories in the different registers. When I do this activity again, I would add a script of a conversation written in the two registers, perhaps a script of an individual doing a job interview, or a conversation between an employer and employee–lots of possibilities for scripts here.

English as 2nd Language Ads

Register use is one of the most important aspects of correct English usage for advanced users of the language. In other languages (French, German, Italian, etc.) formality can be signalled through the formal / informal “you” (du – Sie, tu – Vous, tu – Lei, etc.). In English, register is a key element in expressing degrees of formality.

Here is an overview of registers with specific examples for specific occasions.

REGISTER – Definition: Type of language used when speaking to others

VERTICAL REGISTER – Definition: Language used varying in degrees of formality

HORIZONTAL REGISTER – Definition: Jargon, slang, etc. used in communicating with your friends, colleagues, etc.

One of the more interesting parts of the discussion centered around this hierarchy of “vertical” registers proposed by Cheryl Carter.

LANGUAGE REGISTERS (adapted version)

  1. Frozen – Language that does not change – Prayers and pledges, “set” speech which is often scripted
  2. Formal – Complete sentences and specific word usage. – Formal English often used to show respect used in places such as work, school and public offices
  3. Consultative – Formal register used in conversation – colleagues, peers, etc
  1. Casual – Language used in conversation with friends. – idiomatic and often full of slang, used to signal belonging to a given group
  2. Intimate – Language between lovers (and twins). – “private” language full of codewords only known to the two

Here are four examples of different situations using different types of language to express similar sentiments:

Example: Greetings

  1. Frozen – Welcome to the Hugh Brothers Industrial Center. Where tomorrow’s world meets today’s. Please remember that no flash photography is allowed during this tour…
  2. Formal – Good morning. May I speak to the director, please?
  3. Consultative – Hello, Mr Smith. How are you this morning?
  4. Casual – Hey, Jack. What’s up?
  5. Intimate – How’s my little snuggy wuggy?

Example: Complaints

  1. Frozen – This is a complaint for damages and injunctive relief arising out of manipulative activities in the gold market from 1994 to the present time …
  2. Formal – I hope you don’t mind my stating that the service is unsatisfactory. I would like a refund.
  3. Consultative – Excuse me Ms Anderson. As I understand the task, we need to focus on improving our delivery times rather than blaming our suppliers.
  4. Casual – Oh, Bob. Just a moment! Listen, you know… well… what was with that off-key comment last night?
  5. Intimate – I’m sick and tired of your crap!

Example: Encouragement

  1. Frozen – I offer You all my prayers, works, joys and suffering of this day …
  2. Formal – Thank you for applying for this position. We’ll let you know within a week if you have been chosen for an interview.
  3. Consultative – Thanks for following-up on the Jones account. Great job!
  4. Casual – Whoa, way to go! Nice catch!
  5. Intimate – You’re so good. I’m crazy about you, Honey.

Language Registers

There are five language registers or styles. Each level has an appropriate use that is determined by differing situations. It would certainly be inappropriate to use language and vocabulary reserve for a boyfriend or girlfriend when speaking in the classroom. Thus the appropriate language register depends upon the audience (who), the topic (what), purpose (why) and location (where).

You must control the use of language registers in order to enjoy success in every aspect and situation you encounter.

1.      Static Register

This style of communications RARELY or NEVER changes. It is “frozen” in time and content. e.g. the Pledge of Allegiance, the Lord’s Prayer, the Preamble to the US Constitution, the Alma Mater, a bibliographic reference, laws .

2.      Formal Register

This language is used in formal settings and is one-way in nature. This use of language usually follows a commonly accepted format. It is usually impersonal and formal. A common format for this register are speeches. e.g. sermons, rhetorical statements and questions, speeches, pronouncements made by judges,  announcements.

3.      Consultative Register

This is a standard form of communications. Users engage in a mutually accepted structure of communications. It is formal and societal expectations accompany the users of this speech. It is professional discourse. e.g. when strangers meet, communications between a superior and a subordinate, doctor & patient, lawyer & client, lawyer & judge, teacher & student, counselor & client,

4.      Casual Register

This is informal language used by peers and friends. Slang, vulgarities and colloquialisms are normal. This is “group” language. One must be member to engage in this register. e.g. buddies, teammates, chats and emails, and blogs, and letters to friends.

5.      Intimate Register

This communications is private. It is reserved for close family members or intimate people. e.g. husband & wife, boyfriend & girlfriend, siblings, parent & children.

Rule of Language Use:

One can usually transition from one language register to an adjacent one without encountering repercussions. However, skipping one or more levels is usually considered inappropriate and even offensive.

Source: Montano-Harmon, M. R. “Developing English for Academic Purposes” California State University, Fullerton.

Teach “Code Switching”: How to Speak in a Formal Register–other topics: click a “category” or use search box

Ruby Payne writes in the April 2008 issue of “Educational Leadership” (a magazine of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development) about “Nine Powerful Practices” for helping raise achievement.  Number 3 is Teach Students to Speak in Formal Register.  The following is adapted from her piece.  Find ASCD at www.ascd.org.

In 1972 a Dutch Linguist, Martin Joos, found that every language in the world includes five “registers” or levels of formality.  They are

  1. FROZEN  The words are always the same.  Examples: The Lord’s Prayer; the Pledge of Allegiance.
  2. FORMAL  The word choice and sentence structure used by the business and education community.  In English, uses a 1200 to 1600 word spoken vocabulary.  Example: “This assignment is not acceptable in its present format.”
  3. CONSULTATIVE  A mix of formal and casual register.  Example: “I can’t accept the assignment the way it is.”
  4. CASUAL  Language used between friends, which comes out of the oral tradition.  Contains few abstract words and uses nonverbal assists.  Example: “This work is a no-go.  Can’t take it.”
  5. INTIMATE  Private language shared between two individuals, such as lovers, or twins.

Both school and work operate at two levels: the consultative and formal. All people use the casual and intimate registers with friends and family.  Students from families with little formal education often default to these registers, never having been made aware of linguistic differences.

Researchers have found that the more generations a person lives in poverty, the less formal the register that person uses (with the exception of people from strong religious backgrounds who may live in the language of formal religious texts).

A study of 42 families by Hart and Risley in 1995 found that children living in families receiving welfare heard approximately 10 million words by age three, whereas children in families in which parents were classified as professional heard approximately 30 million words.

Since teachers instruct and conduct most tests in formal register, those linguistically impoverished students are at a distinct disadvantage.

 

 

 

What Can Teachers Do?

Payne feels teachers should address this issue openly.  They should help students learn to communicate through consultative and formal registers.  She writes, “Some students may object that formal register is ‘white talk;’ we tell them it’s ‘money talk.’  “  The outside world makes its money and rewards people in these modalities.  It expects anyone who participates to be fluent.  Those who aren’t can be shut out.

She suggests direct instruction in the differences in register.  Explain; compare and contrast;  model correct usage.   Let students practice translating phrases from casual into formal register.

For example, a student was sent to the office for telling a teacher that something “sucked.”  Asked to translate that phrase into formal register, he said, “There is no longer joy in this activity.”

Payne feels teachers should use consultative language (a mix of formal and casual) to build relationships with students.  They should teach content in formal register, but provide additional explanation in consultative mode.

source: Ruby Payne’s article in the April 2008 issue of “Educational Leadership”.  Read the entire article for the complete list of nine “Powerful Practices.” 

Also check out Rebecca Wheeler’s article “Becoming Adept at Code-Switching.”    Her book, “Code-Switching: Teaching Standard English in Urban Classrooms,” 2006, by Wheeler and Swords, is published in Urbana IL by the National Council of Teachers of English.

BLOOM’S TAXONOMY

THE MEANING OF TAXONOMY:

 

-Taxonomy is orderly classification of items according to a systematic relationship (low to high, small to big, or simple to complex).

– The science or technique of classification

  • The Biography of Benyamin Samuel Bloom:
  • He was one of the greatest minds to influence the field of education.
  • He was born on February 21, 1913 in Lansford, Pennsylvania. As a young man, he was already an avid reader and curious researcher.
  • 1948: Benjamin Bloom and a group of psychologists studied classroom activities and goals teachers has while planning these activities.

Through this study three domains were concluded:

  • Cognitive Domain
  • Affective Domain
  • Psychomotor Domain
  • Cognitive Domain was split into a hierarchy of 6 thinking skills: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.
  • 1956: Original Bloom’s Taxonomy is published

Benjamin Bloom led a committee of educational psychologists in colleges in 1956, developed a classification of intellectual objectives and skills essential to learning. These learning objectives, known as Bloom’s Taxonomy. Itwas also known as Bloom’s most recognized and highly regarded initial work spawned from his collaboration with his mentor and fellow examiner Ralph W. Tyler.

  • These ideas are highlighted in his third publication, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Handbook I, The Cognitive Domain. He later wrote a second handbook for the taxonomy in 1964, which focuses on the affective domain. Bloom’s research in early childhood education, published in his 1964 Stability and Change in Human Characteristics sparked widespread interest in children and learning and eventually and directly led to the formation of the Head Start program in America. In all, Bloom wrote or collaborated on eighteen publications from 1948-1993.
    • The Definition of BLOOM’S TAXONOMY:

Bloom’s Taxonomy is Level of Knowledge Acquisition
The Three Types of Learning:
There is more than one type of learning. A committee of colleges, led by Benjamin Bloom, identified THREE DOMAINS OF LEARNING/ EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES:

*Cognitive: mental skills (Knowledge)

*Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude)

*Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (Skills)

And As educators, the domain that the educators must focus on is COGNITIVE domain.

Components of the Taxonomy

Cognitive Processing Levels:

Evaluation

Synthesis

Analysis

Application

Comprehension

Knowledge

These tiers were used as building blocks to help teachers scaffold their lessons and build students up to the top tier of thinking.  For over 50 years, these objectives have been used to structure lessons, guide learning, and assess students’ performance. Just like the animal world has a hierarchy, so do the types of questions we ask children that affect their learning. However, current educational initiatives have prompted the revision of these objectives to include the use of technology for instruction.

  • THE BIOGRAPHY OF LORIN ANDERSON:
  • Lorin W. Anderson is a Carolina Distinguished Professor Emeritus at the University of South Carolina, where he served on the faculty from August, 1973, until his retirement in August, 2006.
  • Research Interest

Investigating the quality of education provided for children of poverty throughout the world.

  • Positions

Executive Vice President, Anderson Research Group, Columbia, SC USA

  • PhD

Time and School Learning (University of Chicago, 1973)

  • Publications
    • During his career, Professor Anderson has authored or edited seventeen books and monographs.  He has contributed chapters to 18 edited books.  He is the author or co-author of 37 journal articles.  His most recognized work is A Taxonomy of Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, which was published in 2001(NY: Longman). He served as the editor of the section on “Teaching and Teacher Education” for the International Encyclopedia of Education, 2nd Edition, which was published in 1995.  He served as the chairman of the Editorial Board of the International Journal of Educational Research from 1995 – 2001.  He is member of the International Academy of Education.
    • Inquiry, Data, and Understanding: A Search for Meaning in Educational Research (Lisse, The Netherlands: Taylor and Francis, 2004)
    • Increasing Teacher Effectiveness, Second Edition
      (Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning, 2004)
    • Contact Information

University of South Carolina, Columbia
157 Gregg Parkway
Columbia, SC 29206
803-782-3629
andregroup@sc.rr.com

  • He holds : 1. a B. A. in mathematics from Macalester College,

2. an M. A. in educational psychology from the University of Minnesota

  1. Ph. D. in Measurement, Evaluation, and Statistical Analysis from the University of Chicago, where he was a student of Benjamin S. Bloom.
  • At the University of South Carolina, he taught graduate courses in research design, classroom assessment, curriculum studies, and teacher effectiveness.  While on the faculty of the University he received awards for both teaching and research.
  • During his tenure, he served as a distinguished visiting professor at the University of Sydney (Australia), the University of Newcastle (Australia), the College of Charleston (United States), and Francis Marion University (United States).
    • THE DEFINITION OF BLOOM’S REVISED TAXONOMY:

Bloom’s Timeline Continued

  • 1995: Lorin Anderson, a former student of Benjamin Bloom, led another team of psychologists in revising the original Bloom’s Taxonomy to represent the 21st century.
  • Changes occurred in terminology, structure, and emphasis. 2001: The final revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy was published
  • Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy
    • Bloom’s Taxonomy has changed  and as a result, a number of changes were made
    • How to Use Higher Order Thinking Skills in the Classroom
    • Means of expressing qualitatively different kinds of thinking
    • Adapted for classroom use as a planning tool
    • Continues to be one of the most universally applied models
    • Provides a way to organize thinking skills into six levels, from the most basic to the higher order levels of thinking

Benjamin’s work (Bloom’s Taxonomy) helps us and gives educators powerful verbs …

-To Classify the verbs we use in the cognitive domain to promote higher order thinking skills in children.

-To Guide their lesson plans and shoot for higher order thinking skills for our students!!!

  • THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN OLD VERSION VERSUS NEW VERSION OF BLOOM’S TAXONOMY

Bloom’s Taxonomy is a multi-tiered model of classifying thinking according to six cognitive levels of complexity, first published in 1956. Bloom’s six major categories were changed from noun to verb forms in 2001.

What’s the Difference?

Original Bloom’s Taxonomy

  • Terminology: Used nouns to describe the levels of thinking.
  • Structure: One dimensional using the Cognitive Process.
  • Emphasis was originally for educators and psychologists. Bloom’s taxonomy was used by many other audiences.

Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy

  • Terminology: Uses verbs to describe the levels of thinking.
  • Structure: Two dimensional using the Knowledge Dimension and how it interacts with the Cognitive Process. See next slide for an interactive grid.
  • Emphasis is placed upon its use as a more authentic tool for curriculum planning, instructional delivery and assessment.

Change in Terms:

  • The names of six major categories were changed from noun to verb forms.
  • As the taxonomy reflects different forms of thinking and thinking is an active process verbs were more accurate.
  • The subcategories of the six major categories were also replaced by verbs
  • Some subcategories were reorganised.
  • The knowledge category was renamed. Knowledge is a product of thinking and was inappropriate to describe a category of thinking and was replaced with the word remembering instead.
  • Comprehension became understanding and synthesis was renamed creating in order to better reflect the nature of the thinking described by each category.

Structural changes

Structural changes seem dramatic at first, yet are quite logical when closely examined. Bloom’s original cognitive taxonomy was a one-dimensional form. With the addition of products, the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy takes the form of a two-dimensional table. One of the dimensions identifies The Knowledge Dimension (or the kind of knowledge to be learned) while the second identifies The Cognitive Process Dimension (or the process used to learn).  The Knowledge Dimension is composed of four levels that are defined as Factual, Conceptual, Procedural, and Meta-Cognitive. The Cognitive Process Dimension consists of six levels that are defined as Remember, Understand, Apply, Analyze, Evaluate, and Create.

Change in Emphasis:

Emphasis is the third and final category of changes. As noted earlier, Bloom himself recognized that the taxonomy was being “unexpectedly” used by countless groups never considered an audience for the original publication. The revised version of the taxonomy is intended for a much broader audience. Emphasis is placed upon its use as a “more authentic tool for curriculum planning, instructional delivery and assessment” (oz-TeacherNet, 2001).

  • More authentic tool for curriculum planning, instructional delivery and assessment.
  • Aimed at a broader audience.
  • Easily applied to all levels of schooling.
  • The revision emphasises explanation and description of subcategories.

The new terms (REVISED BLOOM’S TAXONOMY) are defined as:

  • Remembering: Retrieving, recognizing, and recalling relevant knowledge from long-term memory. Recalling information, Recognising, listing, describing, retrieving, naming, finding.
  • Understanding: Constructing meaning from oral, written, and graphic messages through interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing, explaining ideas or concepts, Interpreting, summarising, and paraphrasing.
  • Applying: Carrying out, executing or using a procedure through executing, or implementing. Using information in another familiar situation
  • Analyzing: Breaking material/ information into constituent parts, determining how the parts relate to one another, to explore understandings and relationships,
    and to an overall structure or purpose through differentiating, organizing, and attributing. Comparing, organising, deconstructing, interrogating, finding.
  • Evaluating: Making judgments based on criteria and standards through checking, hypothesising, experimenting, judging and critiquing. Justifying a decision or course of action
  • Creating: Putting elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganizing elements into a new pattern or structure through generating, planning, or producing. Generating new ideas, products, or ways of viewing things. Designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing.

(Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001, pp. 67-68).

The figure below gives a comprehensive overview of the sub-categories, along with some suggested question starters that aim to evoke thinking specific to each level of the taxonomy.

REMEMBERINGž  Exhibit/show memory of previously learned materials by recalling facts, terms, basic concepts and answers

 

Model questionsž  Who?

ž  Where?

ž  Which one?

ž  What?

ž  When?

ž  Who?

ž  How?

ž  (WH questions)

 

understandingž  Constructing meaning, Demonstrative understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting, explaining, giving descriptions, and stating main ideas

 

Model questionsž  State in your own words.

ž  What does this mean?

ž  Which are facts?

ž  Is this the same as …?

ž  Explain what is meant by … ?

 

APPLYINGž  Using new knowledge, Solve problems to new situations by applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different way

 

MODEL QUESTIONSž  Predict what would happened if … .

ž  Tell how … .

ž  Tell how much change there would be … .

ž  What would result … .

ž  Etc.

 

The verbs in taxonomy provide categories of thinking skills that help educators formulate questions in language testing. The taxonomy begins with the lowest level thinking skill and moves to the highest level of thinking skill.

From the verbs which represent remembering, understanding and applying we can make a language testing using those verbs to grade the level of difficulty.

It is also intended to provide for classification of the goals of our educational system.

It helps to gain perspective on the emphasis given to certain behaviours by a particular set of educational plans.

A teacher in class, in classifying the goals of teaching unit, may find that they all fall within the taxonomy category of recalling or remembering knowledge. Looking at the taxonomy categories  may suggest to him that, for example, he could include some goals dealing with the application of this knowledge and with the analysis of the situations in which the knowledge is used.

 

The Story of Goldilocks and the Three Bears

Once upon a time, there was a little girl named Goldilocks.  She  went for a walk in the forest.  Pretty soon, she came upon a house.  She knocked and, when no one answered, she walked right in.

At the table in the kitchen, there were three bowls of porridge. Goldilocks was hungry.  She tasted the porridge from the first bowl.

“This porridge is too hot!” she exclaimed.

So, she tasted the porridge from the second bowl.

“This porridge is too cold,” she said

So, she tasted the last bowl of porridge.

“Ahhh, this porridge is just right,” she said happily and she ate it all up.

After she’d eaten the three bears’ breakfasts she decided she was feeling a little tired.  So, she walked into the living room where she saw three chairs.  Goldilocks sat in the first chair to rest her feet.

“This chair is too big!” she exclaimed.

So she sat in the second chair.

“This chair is too big, too!”  she whined.

So she tried the last and smallest chair.

“Ahhh, this chair is just right,” she sighed.  But just as she settled down into the chair to rest, it broke into pieces!

Goldilocks was very tired by this time, so she went upstairs to the bedroom.  She lay down in the first bed, but it was too hard. Then she lay in the second bed, but it was too soft. Then she lay down in the third bed and it was just right.  Goldilocks fell asleep.

As she was sleeping, the three bears came home.

“Someone’s been eating my porridge,” growled the Papa bear.

“Someone’s been eating my porridge,” said the Mama bear.

“Someone’s been eating my porridge and they ate it all up!” cried the Baby bear.

“Someone’s been sitting in my chair,” growled the Papa bear.

“Someone’s been sitting in my chair,” said the Mama bear.

“Someone’s been sitting in my chair and they’ve broken it all to pieces,” cried the Baby bear.

They decided to look around some more and when they got upstairs to the bedroom, Papa bear growled, “Someone’s been sleeping in my bed,”

“Someone’s been sleeping in my bed, too” said the Mama bear

“Someone’s been sleeping in my bed and she’s still there!” exclaimed Baby bear.

Just then, Goldilocks woke up and saw the three bears.  She screamed, “Help!”  And she jumped up and ran out of the room.  Goldilocks ran down the stairs, opened the door, and ran away into the forest.  And she never returned to the home of the three bears.

Language Testing for Goldiloks Story

Remembering

1.  Name all the characters in the  story.

2.  What happened at the end of  the story?

Understanding

3.  Summarize what the Goldilocks  story was about

4.  Why did Goldilocks like the  little bear’ s chair best?

Applying

5.  Construct a theory as to why  Goldilock went into the house

6.  If Goldilocks had come into  your house, what are some of the things she might have used?

 

 

 

 

MY JAKARTA’S TRAFFIC SPEECH

First of all I would like to say thank you for your kindness, attention, time and the opportunity which is given to me to deliver my speech entitled the Jakarta’s traffic.

Jakarta, as we have already known that it is the capital of Indonesia. And with its function as a capital city, Jakarta has almost got everything to attract other people to come to Jakarta for example: its own uniqueness and characteristic, the facility, the glamor and etc. And during the urbanization process and globalization era, Jakarta has become more popular than another city. Many people want to come and to live in Jakarta. The people do not think that they will cause or even get problem by living in Jakarta. They do not realize that living in Jakarta is not as easy and nice as they thought before. Beside the advantages and the luxurious thing that the people can get from Jakarta, They must realize that they will also get the disadvantages or problems. One of the problems that the people must face in Jakarta is Traffic Jam.

Traffic jam is a condition when vehicles are fully stopped for periods of time. Nowadays, Jakarta has been a very crowded city because of higher numbers of cars and population, the timing of work/ schools, bad weather, narrow roads and etc. The people will meet traffic jam everywhere especially during busy hours. The traffic can be very bad and seems to be more crowded and long. There is a line of cars in front of you. You have to wait around 10 minutes to get 7 meters. And even in the place where usually never been any traffic jam now there is a traffic jam and it is also quite long and heavy.

Traffic jam can give effect on people, the environment and the economy. On People, traffic jam can cause mental stress and influence the people’s work because people cannot reach the place of work easily and on time. Beside that Driver will become impatient and then they may be like to drive aggressively or dangerously that finally they will put the passengers and the other driver in danger. On the environment, Vehicles stopped in traffic produce a large volume of harmful carbon emissions that can cause air, water and also noise pollution that finally all of that will influence in people’s health. On Economy, Traffic jam can cause a loss in productivity for businesses and in people’s personal lives because people come late for working/ meeting/ other appointment. It may also slowdown shipping of cargo that finally will effect on economy growth.

Actually, there are many solutions which could make Jakarta free from traffic jams that haunt Jakarta every day and many tricks to enjoy the traffic jam conditions. The tricks are; first, the people can listen the song from the radio in the car or from the cell phone; next, the people can sleep during the long traffic jam; then, the people can eat or drink something, etc. And the solutions to reduce traffic jams are:  first, the people can take the other transportation except land transportation for example water transportation; next, they can use alternative routes and go to work earlier; then, they must follow the law in the streets and do not need to use public transportation to the nearby places. And from the government side, they must build new high ways, new bridges, and put the strict rules that limit the numbers of owning vehicles.

In conclusion, Jakarta has always been a big problem for Jakarta’s people and government. The traffic will effect in people, in economics, and big damage for the environment whether they want it or not. But it does not mean that it is impossible to reduce the traffic jam if all part and side of the people cooperate each other. So The people can make changes for their  lives

PAPER SUMMARY OF PRAGMATICS FROM GEORGE YULE

CHAPTER I

Definition and background

Pragmatics is

  1. The study of what speakers mean, or ‘speaker meaning’.
  2. Concerned with the study of meaning as communicated by a speaker(or writer) and interpreted by a listener(or readers)

It has, consequently, more to do with the analyss of what people mean by their utterances than what the words or phrases in those utterances might mean by themselves. Pragmatics is the study of speaker meaning.

This type of study necessarily involves the interpretation of what people mean in a particular context and how the context influences what is said.nIt requires a consideration of how speakers organize what they want to say in accordance with who they are talking to, where, when, and under what circumstances. Pragmatics is the study of contextual meaning.

This approach also necessarily explores how listeners can make inferences about what is said in order to arrive at an interpretation of the speaker’s intended meaning. This type of study explores how a great deal of what is unsaid is recognized as part of what is communicated. We might say that it is the investigation of invisible meaning. Pragmatics is the study of how more gets communicated than it is said.

This perspective then raises the question of what determiines the choice between the said and the unsaid. The basic answer is tied to the notion of distance. Closeness, whether it is physical, social, or conceptual, implies shared experience. On the assumption of how close or distant the listener is, speakers determine how much needs to be said. Pragmatics is the study of the expression of relative distance. These are four areas that pragmatics concerned with.

Invisible meaning

In many ways, pragmatics is the study of ‘invisible’ meaning, or how we recognize what is meant even when it isn’t actually said or written. In order for that to happen, speakers (or writers) must be able to depend on a lot of shared assumptions and expectations when they try to communicate. The investigation of those assumptions and expectations provides us with some insights into how more is always being communicated than is said. Alternatively, the sign may indicate a place where parking will be carried out by attendants who have been heated.

    

The words in the sign may allow these interpretations, but we would normally understand that we can park a car in this place, that it’s a heated area, and that there will be an attendant to look after the car.

So, how do we decide that the sign means this when the sign doesn’t even have the word car on it? We must use the meanings of the words, the context in which they occur, and some preexisting knowledge of what would be a likely message as we work toward a reasonable interpretation of what the producer of the sign intended it to convey. Our interpretation of the ‘meaning’ of the sign is not based solely on the words, but on what we think the writer intended to communicate. In the other picture, assuming things are normal and this store has not gone into the business of selling young children over the counter, we can recognize an advertisement for a sale of clothes for those babies and toddlers. The word clothes doesn’t appear in the message, but we can bring that idea to our interpretation of the message as we work out what the advertiser intended us to understand. We are actively involved in creating an interpretation of what we read and hear.

Context

One kind is described as linguistic context, also known as co-text. The co-text of a word is the set of other words used in the same phrase or sentence. The surrounding co-text has a strong effect on what we think the word probably means. In the last chapter, we identified the word bank as a homonym, a single form with more than one meaning. How do we usually know which meaning is intended in a particular sentence? We normally do so on the basis of linguistic context. If the word bank is used in a sentence together with words like steep or overgrown, we have no problem deciding which type of bank is meant. Or, if we hear someone say that she has to get to the bank to withdraw some cash, we know from this linguistic context which type of bank is intended. More generally, we know how to interpret words on the basis of physical context.

The relevant context is our mental representation of those aspects of what is physically out there that we use in arriving at an interpretation. Our understanding of much of what we read and hear is tied to this processing of aspects of the physical context, particularly the time and place, in which we encounter linguistic expressions.

Syntax, Semantics, and Pragmatics

Syntax is the study of the relationship between linguistic forms, how they are arranged in sequence, and which sequences are well-formed.

Semantics is the study of the relationship between linguistics forms and entries in the world; that is, how words literally connect to things. Semantic analysis also attempts to establish the relationships between verbal descriptions and states of affairs in the world as accurate (true) or not, regardless of who produces that description.

Pragmatics is the study of the relationship between linguistic forms and the users of those forms. In this three-part distinction, only pragmatics allows human into the analysis.  The advantage of studying language via pragmatics is that one can talk about people’s intended menaings, their assumptions, their purposes or goals, and the kinds of actions (for example, request) that they are performing when they speak. The big advantag is that all these very human concepts are extremely difficult to analyze in a consistent and objective way. Two friends having a conversation may imply some things and infer some others without providing any clear linguistic evidence that we can point to as the explicit source of ‘the meaning’ of what was communicated. Example [I] is just such a problematic case. I heard the speakers, I knew what they said, but I had no idea what was communicated.

[I] Her: So-did you?

     Him: Hey-who wouldn’t?

Thus, pragmatics is appealing because it’s about how people make sense of each other lingiuistically, but it can be a frustrating area of study because it requires us to make sense of people and what they have in mind.

Regularity

Luckily, people tend to behave in fairly regular ways when it comes to using language. Some of that regularity derives from the fact that people are members of social groups and follow general patterns of behaviour expeted within the group. Within a familiar social group, we normally find it easy to be polite and say appropriate things. In a new, unfamiliar social setting, we are often unsure about what to say and worry that we might say the wrong thing.

Another source of regularity in language use derives from the fact that most people within a linguistic community have similar basic experiences of the world and share a lot of non-linguistic knowledge.

Example:

You would perhaps think that more was being communicated than was being said and that you were being treated as someone with no basic knowledgde (i.e. stupid). Once again, nothing in the use of the linguistic is inaccurate, but getting the pragmatics wrong might be offensive.

CHAPTER 2

Deixis and Distance

Deixis is a technical term (from Greek) for one of the most basic things we do with utterances. It means “pointing via language. Any linguistic form used to accomplish this ‘pointing’ is called a deictic expression.

When you notice a strange object and ask, ‘What’s that?’, you are using a deictic expression (‘that’) to indicate something in the immedate context. Deictic expressions are also sometimes called indexicals. They are among the first forms to be spoken by very young children and can be used to indicate people via person deixis )’me’, ‘you’_, or location via spatial deixis (‘here’, ‘there’, or time via temporal deixis (‘now’, ‘then’)

Person Deixis

Person deixis clearly operates on a basic three-part division, exemplified by the pronouns for first person (‘I’), second person (‘you’), and third person (‘he’, ‘she’, or ‘it’). In many languages these deictic categories of speaker, addressee, and other(s) are elaborated with markers of relative social status (for example, addressee with higher status versus addressee with lower status). Expressions which indicate higher status are described as honorifics. The discussion of the circumstances which lead to the choice of one of these forms rather than another is sometimes described as social deixis. A fairly well-known example of a social contrast encoded within person deixis is the distinction between forms used for a familiar versus a non-familiar addressee in some languages. This is known as the T/V distinction, from the French forms ‘tu’ (familiar) and ‘vous’ (non-familiar), and is found in many languages including German and Spanish. The choice of one form will certainly communicate somthing about the speaker’s view of his or her relationship with the addressee. In those socail contexts where indiviaduals typically mark distinctions between the social status of the speaker and addressee, the higher, the older, and more powerful speaker will tend to use the ‘tu’ version to a lower, younger, and less powerful addressee, and be addressed by the ‘vous’ form in return.

Spatial deixis

The concept of distance already mentioned is clearly relevant to spatial deixis, where the relative location of people and things is being indicated. Contemporary English makes use of only two adverbs, ‘here’ and ‘there’, for the basic distinction, but in older texts and in some dialects, a much larger set of deictic expressions can be found.

In considering spatial deixis, however, it is important to remember that location from the speaker’s perspective can be fixed mentally as well as physically.

Temporal deixis

The psychological basis of temporal deixis seems to be similar to that of spatial deixis. We can treat temporal events as objects that move toward us (into view) or away from us (out of view). One metaphor used in Neglish is of events coming toward the speaker from the future (for example, ‘the coming week’, ‘the approaching year’) and going away from the speaker to the past for example, ‘in days gone by’, ‘the past week’. We also seem to treat the near or immedaite future as ebing close to utterance time by using a proximal deictic ‘this’, as in ‘this (coming) weekend’ or ‘thi (coming) Thursday’.

One basic (but often unrecognized) type of temporal deixis in English is in the choice of verb tense. Whereas other languages have many different forms of the verb as different tenses. English has only two basic forms, the present and the past. Example:

Present —> I live here now

Past       —-> I lived there then.

The present tense is the proximal form and the past tense is the distal form.

The past tense is always used in English in those if-clauses that mark events presented by the speaker as not being close to present reality as in example below:

If I had a yacht, …..

If I was rich, ….

In order to understand many English conditional constructions, we have to recognize that, in temporal deixis, the remote or distal form can be used to communicate not only distance from current time, but also distance from current reality or facts.

Deixis and Grammar

The basic distinctions presented so far for person, spatial, and temporal deixis can all be seen at work in one of themost common structural distinctions made in English grammar – that between direct and indirect (or reported speech). As already described, the deictic expressions for person (‘you’), place (‘here’), and time(‘this evening’) can all be interpreted within the same context as the speaker who utters the example bellow:

  1. a.       Are you planning to be here this evening?
  2. b.      I asked her if she was planning to be there that evening.

This very regular difference in English reported discourse marks a ditinction between the ‘near speaker’ meaning of indirect speech. The proximal deictic forms of a direct speech reporting communicate, often dramatically, a sense of being in the same context as the utterance. The distal deictic forms of indirect speech reporting make the original speech event seem more remote.

It should not be a surprise to learn that deictic expressions were all to be found in the pragmatics wastebasket. Their interpretation depends on the context, the speaker’s intention, and they express relative distance. Given their small size and extremely wide range of possible uses, deictic expressions always communicate much more than is said.

In conclusion Deixis

There are some very common words in our language that can’t be interpreted at all if we don’t know the context, especially the physical context of the speaker. These are words such as here and there, this or that, now and then, yesterday, today or tomorrow, as well as pronouns such as you, me, she, him, it, them. Some sentences of English are virtually impossible to understand if we don’t know who is speaking, about whom, where and when. For example: You’ll have to bring it back tomorrow because she isn’t here today. Out of context, this sentence is really vague. It contains a large number of expressions (you, it, tomorrow, she, here, today) that rely on knowledge of the immediate physical context for their interpretation (i.e. that the delivery driver will have to return on February 15th to 660 College Drive with the package labeled ‘flowers, handle with care’ addressed to Lisa Landry). Expressions such as tomorrow and here are obvious examples of bits of language that we can only understand in terms of the speaker’s intended meaning. They are technically known as deictic expressions, from the Greek word deixis (pronounced like ‘day-icksis’), which means ‘pointing’ via language. We use deixis to point to things (it, this, these boxes) and people (him, them, those idiots), sometimes called person deixis. Words and phrases used to point to a location (here, there, near that) are examples of spatial deixis, and those used to point to a time (now, then, last week) are examples of temporal deixis. All these deictic expressions have to be interpreted in terms of which person, place or time the speaker has in mind. We make a broad distinction between what is marked as close to the speaker (this, here, now) and what is distant (that, there, then). We can also indicate whether movement is away from the speaker’s location (go) or toward the speaker’s location (come). If you’re looking for someone and she appears, moving toward you, you can say Here she comes! If, however, she is moving away from you in the distance, you’re more likely to say There she goes! The same deictic effect explains the different situations in which you would tell someone to Go to bed versus Come to bed.

CHAPTER 3

Reference and Inference

Reference is clearly tied to the speaker’s goals (for example, to identify something) and the speaker’s beliefs (i.e. can the listener be expected to know that particular something?) in the use of language. For successful reference to occur,

we must also recognize the role of inference. Because there is no direct relationship between entities and words, the listener’s task is to infer correctly which entity the speaker intends to identify by using a particular referring expression. It is not unusual for people to want to refer to some entity or person without knowing exactly which ‘name’ would be the best word to use. We can even use vague expressions (for example, ‘the blue thing’, ‘that icky stuff’, ‘ol’what’s his name’, ‘the thingamajig’), relying on the listener’s ability to infer what referent we have in mind. Speakers even invent names. There was a man who delivered package to our office whose ‘real’ name I didn’t know, but whose identity I could infer when the secretary referred to him as in.

Example: Mister Aftershave is late today.

The example above may serve to illustrate that reference is not based  on an objectively correct (versus incorrect) naming, but on some locally successful (versus unsuccessful) choice of expression. We might also note from example that successful reference is necessarily collaborative, with both the speaker and the listener having role in thinking what the other has in mind.

So,reference as an act by which a speaker (or writer) uses language to enable a listener (or reader) to identify something. To perform an act of reference, we can use proper nouns (Chomsky, Jennifer, Whiskas), other nouns in phrases (a writer, my friend, the cat) or pronouns (he, she, it). The words Jennifer or friend or she can be used to refer to many entities in the world. As we observed earlier, an expression such as the war doesn’t directly identify anything by itself, because its reference depends on who is using it. We can also refer to things when we’re not sure what to call them. We can use expressions such as the blue thing and that icky stuff and we can even invent names. For instance, there was a man who always drove his motorcycle fast and loud through my neighborhood and was locally referred to as Mr. Kawasaki. In this case, a brand name for a motorcycle is being used to refer to a person.

Inference

For example, in a restaurant, one waiter can ask another, Where’s the spinach salad sitting? and receive the reply, He’s sitting by the door. If you’re studying linguistics, you might ask someone, Can I look at your Chomsky? and get the response, Sure, it’s on the shelf over there. These examples make it clear that we can use names associated with things (salad) to refer to people, and use names of people (Chomsky) to refer to things. The key process here is called inference. An inference is additional information used bythe listener to create a connection between what is said and what must be meant.

Referential and Atributive uses

It is important to recognize that not all referring expressions have identifiable physical referents. Indefinite noun phrases can be used to identify a physically present entity as in example 2a, but they can also be used to describe entities that are assumed to exist, but are unknown, as in 2b, or entities that, as far as we know, don’t exist as in 2c.

2. a. There’s a man waiting for you

b. he wants to marry a woman with lots of money.

c. We’d love to find a nine-foot-tall basketball player.

It would be distinct from a referential use whereby I actually have a person in mind and, instead of using her name or some other description, I choose the expression in 2b, perhaps because I think you’d be more interested in hearing this woman has lots of money than that she has a name.

The point of this distinction is that expressions themselves cannot be treated as having reference 9as is often assumed in semantic treatments), but are, or are not, ‘invested’ with referential function in context by speaker or writer. Spekares often invite us to assume, via attributive uses, that we can identify what they’re talking about, even when the entity or individual described may not exist.

Names and References

The version of reference being presented here is one in which there is a basic ‘intention-to-identify’ and a ‘recognition-of-intention’ collaboration at work. This process need not only work between one speaker and one listener; it appears to work, in terms of convention, between all members of a community who share a common language and culture. That is, there is a convention that certain referring expressions will be used to identify certain entities on a regular basis. It is our daily experience of the succesful operation of this convention that may cause us to assume that referring expressions can only designate very specific entities. For example, it would not be strange for one student to ask another question in 4a and receive the reply in 4b.

4         a.Can I borrow your Shakespeare?

b.Yeah, it’s over there on the table.

There appears to be a pragmatic connection between proper names and objects that will be conventionally associated, within a socio-culturally defined community, with those names. Using a proper name referrentially to identify any such object invites the listener to make the expected inference.

The role of co-text

In many of the preceding examples, our ability to identify intended referents has actually depended on more than our understanding of the referring expression. It has been aided by the linguistic material, or co-text, accompanying the referring expression.

Of course, co-text is just a linguistic part of teh environment in which a referring expression is used. The physical environment, or context, is peerhaps more easily recognized as having a powerful impact on how referring expressions are to be interpreted.

Anaphoric reference

The preceding discussion has been concerned with single acts of reference. In most of our talk and writing, however, we have to keep track of who or what we are talking about for more than one sentence at a time. After the initial introduction of some entity, speakers will use various expressions to maintain reference.

Anaphora

We usually make a distinction between introducing new referents (a puppy) and referring back to them (the puppy, it).

We saw a funny home video about a boy washing a puppy in a small bath.

The puppy started struggling and shaking and the boy got really wet.

When he let go, it jumped out of the bath and ran away.

In this type of referential relationship, the second (or subsequent) referring expression is an example of anaphora (‘referring back’). The first mention is called the antecedent. So, in our example, a boy, a puppy and a small bath are antecedents and The puppy, the boy, he, it and the bath are anaphoric expressions. Anaphora can be defined as subsequent reference to an already introduced entity. Mostly we use anaphora in texts to maintain reference. The connection between an antecedent and an anaphoric expression is created by use of a pronoun (it), or repetition of the noun with the (the puppy), or the use of other nouns that are related to the antecedent by inference, as in the following examples.

We found a house to rent, but the kitchen was very small.

I caught a bus and asked the driver if it went near the downtown area.

In the first example, we must make an inference like ‘if X is a house, then X has a kitchen’ in order to interpret the connection between antecedent a house and anaphoric expression the kitchen. In the second example, we must make an inference like ‘if X is a bus, then X has a driver’ in order to make the connection between a bus and the driver. In a context where both speakers easily make these types of inferences, it is possible to hear someone complain: I was waiting for the bus, but he just drove by without stopping. When the antecedent is bus, we might expect it as the pronoun, but use of the pronoun he obviously assumes an inference involving the driver.

CHAPTER 4

Presupposition and entailment

It is worth noting at the outset that presupposition and entailment were considered to be much more central to pragmatics in the past than they are now. In more recent approaches, there has been less interest in the type of technical discussion associated with the logical analysis of these phenomena. Without some introduction to that type of analytical discussion, however, it becomes very difficult to understand how the current relationship between semantics and pragmatics developed.

A presupposition is something the speaker assumes to be the case prior to making an utterance. Speakers, not sentences, have presuppositions. AN entailment is something that logically follows from what is asserted in the utterance. Sentence, not speakers, have entailments.

Characteristic presupposes usually explain as constancy under denial is mean presupposes a pronouncement until constant (constant true) although that pronouncement sentence be denial. There are several type in presupposes that is :
Presupposes factive : usage special express take for be of the opinion truth information that obvious after that.
Presupposes non-factive : something of presupposes that assumption notv true. Example of verb like “dream”, “imagine”, and “pretend”.

Presupposes lexical : usage special express by speaker take for be of the opinion a another concept (not obvious).
Presupposes structural : structural of certain sentence alreadyv analysis as presupposes in a constant manner and conventional that part of structure already truth of assumption.
Presupposes counterfactual : that what be of the opinion mustn’t notv true but form be the opposite from true or be the opposite with reality.

What a speaker (or writer) assumes is true or known by a listener (or reader) /an assumption made by the speaker (or writer), can be described as a presupposition.

If someone tells you Your brother is waiting outside, there is an obvious presupposition that you have a brother. When did you stop smoking?, there are at least two presuppositions involved. In asking this question, the speaker presupposes that you used to smoke and that you no longer do so. Questions like this, with built-in presuppositions, are very useful devices for interrogators or trial lawyers.

One of the tests used to check for the presuppositions underlying sentences involves negating a sentence with a particular presupposition and checking if the presupposition remains true. Whether you say My car is a wreck or the negative version My car is not a wreck, the underlying presupposition (I have a car)  remains true despite the fact that the two sentences have opposite meanings.

This is called the ‘constancy under negation’ test for identifying a presupposition. If someone says, I used to regret marrying him, but I don’t regret marrying him now, the presupposition (I married him) remains constant even though the verb regret changes from affirmative to negative.

TYPE EXAMPLE PRESUPPOSES
Factive:  I’m regret leave it >> I’m leave it
Non-factive : he pretend happily >> he not happily
Lexical: he planning escape >> he try to escape
Structural: when he die? >> he die
Counterfactual:  if I’m not sick >> I’m sick

PROJECTION PROBLEM
There is something base hope that presupposition in simple sentence will be in right way when the simple sentence become a part in a complex sentence. This is one of the version from the common concept that the meaning from the whole sentence is combination from the part of each that part sentence, but, a part meaning from the presupposition is unable become the meaning from some complex sentence, and this is called projection problem.
Shirley : It’s so sad. George regrets getting Mary pregnant.
Jean : But he didn’t get her pregnant. We know that now.
If we combine two narration from (13), we can get the chronological, George regrets getting Mary pregnant; But he didn’t get her pregnant !

After we identify a different presupposition, we can see that presupposition in isn’t hold out like presupposition from the narratives that were be combined.
a. George regrets getting Mary pregnant ( = p )
b. George got Mary Pregnant ( = q )
c. p >> q
d. He didn’t get her pregnant ( = r )
e. George regrets getting Mary pregnant, but he didn’t get her pregnant ( = p & r )
f. p & r >> Not q

One of the method to analyze whole sentences which is presented in (14.e) is a narrative by somebody is reporting something happen in soap opera. That people didn’t assume the q presupposition is right.

THE ARRANGED IN ORDERLY ENTAILMENT
Actually entailment is not m pragmatic concept (because is related by the speaker’s purpose), but it is regarded a logic concept, and it is symbolic by II -. There some example of entailment.
Rover chased three squirrels ( = p )
a. Something chased three squirrels ( = q )
b. Rover did something to three squirrels ( = r )
c. Rover chased of three something ( = s )
d. Something happened ( = t )
In preset a relationship between entailment and as p II–q, in simple way we can say that the narrative in sentence, the speaker must confess that the correctness in some back entailment.

CHAPTER 5
COOPERATION AND IMPLICATION

The chapter before it said that speaker and listener are involved in a conversation. Generally they cooperate with each others. For example when someone says “my car”, automatically the listener assumes that the listener really has a car and the listener also plans to say the reality that he really has a car.
Implication is an addition purpose that is explained by the speaker. For example, when someone asks to his friend about hamburger, “How do you like a hamburger?” then his friend answers “Hamburger is hamburger”. The implication is the speaker thinks that all hamburgers are same.

COOPERATION PRINCIPLE
Think that you are sitting on the bench in a park and there is a dog under it, then a man comes to you and asks you “does your dog bite?” and you answers “No, my dog doesn’t bite!” then the man touch the dog feathers and the dog bites him. The man says to you “Hey’ you said that your dog doesn’t bite!” and you says “yes, my dog doesn’t bite, but that is not my dog”.
The story above shows us that you and the man are right. But the problem is from the understanding of the man that thinks the dog under the bench is your dog although not. The man needs more information than you give about the dog. It is a misunderstanding.
The point is the cooperation principle must give a good understanding to the speaker and the listener. Cooperation principle can be divided by 4 subs. Here are the subs:
1. Maxim of quality
• Don’t say what you believe to be false
• Don’t say that for which you lack adequate evidence
Example:
Background:
A friend’s father considers whether or not to buy your friend a new car, and you are aware that the old car has broken down before.
A : should I buy my son this new sport car?
B improper : I do not know if that is such a good idea, his car runs fine.
B proper : yeah, that sounds like a good idea, his car has broken down before.
2. Maxim of quantity
• Make your contribution as informative as is required
• Do not make your contribution more informative than is required
Example:
Background:
A man stops his vehicle in the middle of the road to briefly ask you for directions.
A : where is the post office?
B improper : there are two in town, but the closest one is brand new. Down the road, about 50 meters past the second left. Also, you should not stop your car in the middle of the road anymore.
B improper : continue on, and make the second left up there. You will see it.
3. Maxim of relation
• Be relevant
Example:
A : ugh, I wonder what time it is…..
B improper : it is 6.30
B proper : it is 6.30. So, you have the whole night ahead of you! Have you eaten at Hardy’s before?
4. Maxim of manner
• Avoid obscurity of expression.
• Avoid ambiguity
• Be orderly.
Example:
A : can you take out the trash?
B improper : well, it is probable that I would take out the trash more often if someone were not flagrantly wasteful, such that, the majority of trash was not always coming from that person.
B proper : Sure, but we need to talk about how we are assigning the chores around here when I get back.
CONVERSATION IMPLICATION
The basic assumption of conversation is the members should follow the maxim rules in a conversation. For example:
Charlene : I hope you brought the bread and the cheese.
Dexter : Ah, I brought the bread.
After knowing the response of Dexter, Charlene automatically realized that Dexter only brought the bread. He didn’t bring the cheese. Dexter only said that he brought the bread without saying that he didn’t bring the cheese in order to make Charlene assume that he didn’t bring the cheese.
GENERAL CONVERSATION IMPLICATION
This implication is more general than conversation implication because it is not specific. For example:
Someone says: “I was sitting in a garden one day. A child looks over the fence”

The implication shows that the garden and the child are not his. If the garden and the child are his, he will says “my garden” and ”my child”.
SCALED IMPLICATION
This implication is decided by value scale. The information that is explained implies the value of scale. For example:
Someone says: “I am studying linguistics and I have completed some of the required course”
The speaker uses word “some” shows us that the speaker has not finished all the linguistics courses. We will know more about the implication if the speaker explains more about the linguistics, for example:
He says: “They are sometimes really interesting”.
It shows that speaker is not only has not completed the courses, but also he is sometimes interested in linguistics.
PRIVATE CONVERSATION IMPLICATION
This implication needs a private knowledge. For example:
Rick : Hey, coming to the wild party tonight?
Tom : My parents are visiting
To make Tom’s answer becomes relevant, Rick must have a little knowledge that is assumed that Tom has another activity tonight. It also shows that Tom won’t join the wild party because his parents will visit him. And it won’t be wild.

CONVENTIONAL IMPLICATION
This implication is real using the words are spoken. Not hidden. It is free. The words that are usually used are “but and even”. For example:
Roger : Marry suggested black, but I choose white.
The implication is the sentence “I choose white”. It shows the implication. The implication is real and not hidden.

CHAPTER 6
SPEECH ACTS AND EVENTS

In attempting to express themselves, people perform actions via those utterances. Utterance can be used to perform the act of ending your employment. However, the actions performed by utterances do not have to be as dramatic or as unpleasant. The action can be quite pleasant, as in he compliment performed, the acknowledgement of thanks, or the expression of surprise. For the examples, “You’re so delicious”, “You’re welcome”, “You’re crazy”.
Actions performed via utterances are generally called speech acts and, in English, are commonly given more specific labels, such as apology, complaint, compliment, invitation, promise, or request.
These descriptive terms for different kinds of speech acts apply to the speaker’s communicative intention in producing an utterance. Speaker and hearer are usually helped in this process by the circumstances surrounding the utterance. These circumstances, including other utterances, are called the speech event. In many ways, it is the nature of the speech event that determines the interpretation of an utterance as performing a particular speech art. If the same utterance can be interpreted as two different kinds of speech act, it also means that there is more to the interpretation of a speech act that can be found in the utterance alone.
SPEECH ACTS
On any occasion, the action performed by producing an utterance will consist of three related acts. There is first a locutionary act, which is the basic act of utterance, or producing a meaningful linguistic expression.
Mostly we don’t just produce well-formed utterances with no purpose. We form an utterance with some kind of function in mind. This is the second dimension, or the illocutionary act. The illocutionary act is performed via the communicative force of an utterance.
We do not, of course simply create an utterance with a function without intending it to have an effect. This is the third dimension, the perlocutionary act.
Indeed, the term ‘speech act’ is generally interpreted quite narrowly to mean only the illocutionary force of an utterance. The illocutionary force of an utterance is what it ‘counts as’.
How can speakers assume that the intended illocutionary force will be recognized by the hearer? That question has been addressed by considering two things: illocutionary Force Indicating devices and Felicity conditions.
While other devices, such as lowered voice quality for a warning or a threat, might be used to indicate illocutionary force, the utterance also has to be produced under certain conventional conditions to count as having the intended illocutionary force.

In very general terms, we can usually recognize the type of ‘action’ performed by a speaker with the utterance. We use the term speech act to describe actions such as ‘requesting’, ‘commanding’, ‘questioning’ or ‘informing’.We can define a speech act as the action performed by a speaker with an utterance. If you say, I’ll be there at six, you are not just speaking, you seem to be performing the speech act of ‘promising’.

FELICITY CONDITIONS
There are certain expected or appropriate circumstances, technically known as felicity conditions, for the performances of a speech act to be recognized as intended.
In every context among ordinary people, there are also preconditions on speech acts. There are general conditions on the participants, for example, that they can understand the language being used and that they are not play-acting or being nonsencial. Them there are content conditions. For example, for both a promise and a warning, the content of the utterance must be about a future event.
The preparatory conditions for a promise are significantly different from those for a warning. When I promise to do something, there are two preparatory conditions: first, the event will not happen by itself, and second, the event will have a beneficial effect. Related to these conditions is the sincerity condition that, for a promise, the speaker genuinely intends to carry out the future action, and for a warning, the speaker genuinely believes that the future event will not have a beneficial effect.
Finally, there is the essential condition, which covers the fact that by the act of uttering a promise, In the other words, the utterance changes my state from non-obligation to obligation. This assential condition thus combines with a specification of what must be in the utterance content, the context, and the speaker’s intentions, in order for a specific speech act to be appropriately (felicitously) performed.
THE PERFORMATIVE HYPOTHESIS
One way to think about the speech acts being performed via utterances is to assume that underlying every utterance (U) there is a clause, similar to “I (Vp) you that…”, containing a performative verb (Vp) which makes the illocutionary force explicit. This is known as the performative hypothesis and the basic format of the underlying clause in “I (hereby) Vp you (that) U”.
“I hereby order you that you clean up this mess.”, in that clause, this underlying clause will always make explicit. Unlike, “ Clean up this mess!”, in utterances is implicit.
“I hereby order you that you clean up this mess.”, are used by speakers as explicit performatives. “ Clean up this mess!”, are implicit performatives, sometimes called primary performatives.
The advantage of this type of analysis is that it makes clear just what elements are involved in the production and interpretation of utterances.
Another advantage is to show that some adverbs such as ‘honestly’, or adverbial clauses such as ‘because I may be late’, in “What time is it, because I may be late?”, naturally attach to the explicit performative clauses rather than the implicit version.
There are some technical disadvantages to the performative hypothesis. For example, uttering the explicit performative version of a command has a much more serious impact than uttering the implicit version. It is also difficult to know exactly what the performative verb (or verbs) might be for some utterances, it would be very strange to have an explicit version.
The really practical problem with any analysis based on identifying explicit performatives is that, in principle, we simply do not know how many performative verbs there are in any language. Instead of trying to list all the possible explicit performatives, and then distinguish among all of them, some more general classifications of types of speech acts are usually used.
SPEECH ACT CLASSSIFICATION
One general classification system lists fives types of general function performed by speech acts, declaration, representatives, expressive, directives, and commisive.
1. Declaration are those kind of speech acts that change the word via their utterance.
When use it, the speaker change the world with words.
2. Representative is are those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker belief as issues or not.
Example :
a. the earth is flat
b. chomsky didn’t write about peanuts
c. it was a warm sunny day
to using a representative, the speaker makes the words fit the world (of belief).
3. Expressive are those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker feels.
Example:
I’m really sorry!
Congratulations!
In using an expressive, the speaker makes words fit the world (of feeling).
4. Directives are those kinds of speech acts that state what the speakers use to get someone to do something.
Example :

Could you lend me a pen, please?
Don’t touch that.
In using a directive, the speaker attempts to make the world fit the words (via the hearer).

5. Commisive are those kinds of speech acts that state what the speakers use to commit themselves to some future action. They express what the speaker intends.
Example:
I’ll be back
We will not do that.
In using the commisive, the speaker understake to make the world fit the words (via the speaker).
DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH ACTS
There is a simple recognized relationship between the three structural forms (declaratives, interrogative, imperative) and the three general communicative function (statement, interrogative, imperative) and the three general communicative functions (statement, question, command/request).
Whenever there is a direct relationship between a structure and a function, we have a direct speech act.
Whenever there is an indirect relationship between a structure and function, we have an indirect speech art.
Thus, a declarative used to make a statement is a direct speech act, but a declarative used to make a request is an indirect speech act. When it is used to make a statement, it is a direct speech art.
When it is used to make a command/request, it is functioning as an indirect speech art.
Example:
It’s cold outside.
Indirect speech acts are generally associated with greater politeness in English than direct speech art.

We usually use certain syntactic structures with the functions listed beside them in the following table.

Structures                           Functions

Did you eat the pizza?    Interrogative                    Question

Eat the pizza (please)!   Imperative                          Command (Request)

You ate the pizza.                            Declarative                         Statement

Whenan interrogative structure such as Did you . . .?, Are they . . .?or Canwe . . .? is used with the function of a question, it is described as a direct speech act. For example, when we don’t know something and we ask someone to provide the information, we usually produce a direct speech act such as Can you ride a bicycle? Compare that utterance with Can you pass the salt? In this second example, we are not really asking a question about someone’s ability. In fact, we don’t normally use this structure as a question at all. We normally use it to make a request. That is, we are using a syntactic structure associated with the function of a question, but in this case with the function of a request. This is an example of an indirect speech act. Whenever one of the structures in the set above is

used to perform a function other than the one listed beside it on the same line, the result is an indirect speech act.

It is possible to have strange effects if one person fails to recognize another person’s indirect speech act. Consider the following scene. A visitor to a city, carrying his luggage, looking lost, stops a passer-by.

VISITOR: Excuse me. Do you know where the Ambassador Hotel is?

PASSER-BY: Oh sure, I know where it is. (and walks away)

In this scene, the visitor uses a form normally associated with a question (Do you know . . .?), and the passer-by answers that question literally (I know . . .) . That is, the passer-by is acting as if the utterance was a direct speech act instead of an indirect speech act used as a request for directions. Failure to recognize indirect speech acts can lead to some bizarre interactions. The main reason we use indirect speech acts seems to be that actions such as requests presented in an indirect way (Could you open that door for me?) are

generally considered to be more gentle or more polite in our society than direct speech acts (Open that door for me!). Exactly why they are considered to be more polite is based on some complex social assumptions.
SPEECH EVENTS
Asking about preconditions technically is not count as making a request, but does allow the hearer to react as if is the request has been made. It is better in most social circumstances, for the speaker to avoid direct imposition via a direct request. When the speaker asks about preconditions, no direct request is made. A speech event is an activity in which participants interact via language in some conventional way to arrive at some outcome. The analysis of speech events is clearly way to studying how more gets communicated than is said.

CHAPTER 7
POLITENESS AND INTERACTION

A linguistic interaction is necessarily a social interaction. Factors which relate to social distance and closeness are established prior to interaction. They typically involve the relative status of the participants, based on social values tied to such things as age and power. We take part in a wide range of interactions ( mostly with strangers ) where the social

distance determined by external factors is dominant. However, there are other factors, such as amount of imposition or degree of friendliness, which are often negotiated during in interaction. These are internal to the interaction and can result in the initial social distance changing and being marked as less, or more, during its course. These internal factors are typically in the process of being worked out within the interaction. Both types of factors, external and internal, have an influence not only on what we say, but also on how we are interpreted. Recognizing the impact is normally carried out in terms of politeness.
 Politeness
Within interaction, however, there is a more narrowly specified type of politeness at work. Face means the public self-image of a person. It refers to that emotional and social sense of selfs that everyone has and expects everyone else to recognize. Politeness can then be defined as the means employed to show awareness of another person’s face. Showing awareness for another person’s face when that other seems socially distant is often described in terms of respect or deference. If you say something that represents a threat to another person’s self-image, that is called a face-threatening act. For example, if you use a direct speech act to get someone to do something (Give me that paper!), you are behaving as if you have more social power than the other person. If you don’t actually have that social power (e.g. you’re not a military officer or prison warden), then you are performing a face-threatening act. An indirect speech act, in the form associated with a question (Could you pass me that paper?), removes the assumption of social power. You’re only asking if it’s possible. This makes your request less threatening to the other person’s face. Whenever you say something that lessens the possible threat to another’s face, it can be described as a face-saving act.

Face Wants
Within their everyday social interactions, people generally behave as if their expectations concerning their public self-image, or their face wants, will be respected. Alternatively, given the possibility that some action might be interpreted as a threat to another’s face, the speaker can say something to lessen the possible threat. This is called a face saving act. Because it is generally expected that each person will attempt to respect the face wants of others, there are many different ways of performing gace saving acts.
Negative and Positive Face
A person’s negative face is the need to be independent, to have freedom of action, and not to be imposed on by others. A person’s positive face is the need to be accepted, even liked, by others, to be treated as a member of the same group, and to know that his or her wants to shared by others.
Self and other : say nothing
One way to see the relevance of the relationship between this politeness concepts and language use is to take a single speech event and map out the different interpretation associated with different possible expressions used within that event.
For Example : – self : ( Looks in bag )
– other : ( offer pen ) Here,use this.
Say something : off and on record
Example :
a. Uh,,,I forgot my pen.
b. Hmm,,,I wonder where I put my pen.
{ They are technically described as being off record. }
An address forms are technically described as being on record my be followed by expressions like ‘ please ‘ and ‘ would you?’.
Example :
– Have some more cake.
– Give me that wet umbrella.

However, generally speaking, bald on record expressions are associated with speech events where the speaker assumes that he or she has a power over the other ( for example, in military contexts ) and can control the other’s behavior with words.
Positive and Negative Politeness
A positive politeness is a face saving act which is concerned with the person’s positive face will tend to show solidarity, emphasize that both speaker want the same thing, and that they have a common goal. For example : ( How about letting me use your pen? ). Meanwhile a negative politeness is a face saving act which is oriented to the person’s negative face will tend to show deference, emphasize the importance of the others time or concerns, and even include an apology for the imposition or interuption. For example : ( I’m sorry to brother you, but can I ask you for a pen or something?).
Strategies
A solidarity strategy will be marked via inclusive terms such as ‘ we ‘ and ‘ let’s ‘. For example : – Come on let’s go to the party. Everyone will be there. We’ll have fun. The language associated with a deference strategy emphasizes the speaker’s and the hearer’s independence, marked via an absence of personal claims.

For example : – There’s going to be a party, If you can make it. It will be fun.
These general types of strategies are illustrated here via utterances which are actually central to the speech event ( for example, invitation ). Face saving behavior, however, is often at work well before such utterances are produced, in the form of pre-sequences.
Pre-sequences
The basic assumption, from the perspective of politeness, is that face typically at risk when the self needs to accomplish something involving other. The advantage of the pre-request element is that it can be answered either with a ‘ go ahead ‘ response. For example ; him : Are you busy? (= pre-request)
her : Oh, sorry. (=stop)
Pre-sequences are also commonly used in making invitations.
For example ; him : What are you doing this Friday ? (=pre-invitation)
her : Hmm, nothing so far. (=go ahead)
him : Come over for dinner. (=invitation)
her : Oh, I’d like that. (=accept)
Children often use pre-announcements to check if their parents are willing to pay attention.
For example ;
child : Mom, guess what happened ? (=pre -announcement)
mother : ( silence )
child : Mom you know what ? (=pre-announcement)
mother : Not right now, Jacy, I’m busy. (=stop)
Throughout this discussion of politeness in interaction, we have been assumsing a well-known and easily recognizable structure for the interaction.

CHAPTER 8
THE STRUCTURE OF CONVERSATION AND REFERENCE

The word interaction can be applied to some social meeting with a various kinds. The kinds of conversation is maybe look different depend on its different interaction context. The structure of conversation is anything that we have been assumption as something that we already know well by discussion first.CONVERSATION ANALYSIS
There are a lot of allusions that used to describe the structure of conversation. They can say that a conversation is like a dance, or traffic current on the cross road, that involve alloy of kinds of movements. But, the analytical approaches that have been used most are based on the analogy. On that part there is an extinct commodity that called a chance to talk ”floor” that usually we define it as a right to talk or turn. And when someone tries to take control of that situation we called it the taking over of turn, it is as a form of social action. The possibility of turn changing problem is called with TRP (Transition Relevance Place). The interaction designs of conversation are different from one social group to another.
OVERLAPS AND BACKCHANNEL
Most of conversations are involve 2 persons or more. Overlap is both speakers try to talk at the same time. If two persons try to talk but doesn’t find a flow or rhythm, it means that they have more understanding than words to talk. You can see the first the example of conversation that shows miscorrelations.
1. Mr. Straits : What’s your major Dave?
Dave : English-well I haven’t really decided yet. (3 seconds)
Mr. Straits : So-you want to be a teacher?
Dave : No-not really-well not if I can help it. (2, 5 seconds)
Mr. Straits : What-//Where do you-go ahead?
Dave : I mean it’s a-oh sorry// I-emm-.
• The short interval (-) show a form of uncertainty, while the long one become silence. Two or the last line shows overlap with a conventional way. And signed with (//) on the first conversation.
The second Example shows a silence between both speakers because of each speaker doesn’t take their part well.
2. Jan : Dave I’m going to the store. (2 seconds)
Jan : Dave? (2 seconds)
Jan : Dave-is something wrong?
Dave : What? What’s wrong?
Jan : Never mind.
Most of speakers (younger).overlap speaking usually appear in the language use function. The third example shows an effect from the speaker that overlaps and makes a sense comparison of two voices that gather in harmony.
3. Min : Did you see him in the video?
Wendy : Yeah-the part on the beach.
Min : Oh my God//he was so sexy.
Wendy : He was just being so cool.
Min : And all the waves//crashing around him.
Wendy : Yeah that was really wild.
• In the example above an overlap shows a close relation between both speakers.
4. The next example, overlap shows a competition.
Joe : When they were in//power last-wait CAN I FINISH?
Jerry : That’s my point I said.
• In the fourth example the speakers look like to talk, but actually they are in competition to get their each right to talk. The first speaker wants some rules of conversation structure.
The TRP signs that very conspicuous are the structural of intervals. Anyone who wants a right to speak must wait for the TRP possibility before come in. They must realize the existence of interval in the last of syntax unit. The fifth example shows that each speaker has filled their each interval, and put it inside of syntax unit. In this example we can see that the speakers were tried to defend their turn.

5. I wasn’t talking about-um his first book that was-uh really just like a start and so-uh isn’t-doesn’t count really.
There’s another way to defend a right to talk. You can see that in the sixth example.
6. a. There are three points I’d like to make first…
b. There’s more than one ways to do this-one example would be…
c. Didn’t you know about Melvin? Oh-it was the last October…
d. Did you hear Cindy’s new car?-She got it in…
• The statements in the (6a) and (6b) are related with the fact or opinion, while the statements in (6c) and (6d) was the beginning.
There are some different kinds of ways to show that they were hearing such as smile, expression and another signs. But, the most common vocal indication is backchannel signals, like in the example below.
7. Caller : If you use your long distance service a lot then you’ll…
Marry : Uh-uh
Caller : Be interested in the discount I’m talking about, because…
Marry : Yeah
Caller : It can only save your money to switch to a cheaper service.
Marry : Mmmm
• These kinds of signals (‘uh-uh’, ‘yeah’, ‘mmm’) give feed back to the speaker that speak, the listener follow what they’ve said and not refuse it.
SPEAKING STYLE
There are some variations that can create some misunderstanding. Some of individual hope that their role in the conversation will be very active. So that most of the speakers will relatively fast, almost without interval between the turn of speak. These kinds of speaking style called with high involving style. It means that the speaker use slower way, hoping for long intervals between the turn of speak. These kinds of speaking style called high solidarity style, where no need interruption and force.
ADJACENCY PAIRS
There are many kinds in the structure of dialogue,t hat are greeting, Introduce, etc.
Example: Anna: Hello Bill : Hi
Anna: How are you? Bill : Fine
Anna: See you! Bill :Bye
The name of automatic formation like that is Adjacency Pairs. There are two parts of pairs ,that are first part and second part which expression by to different peoples, and there is empty statement in the second part.
Example: First part Second part
A: How are you? B: The usual
A: What’s up? B: Nothing much
The others example of adjacency pairs is expressing of gratitude and offering/service help.
Example: First part Second part
A:Thanks B:You’re welcome
A:Could you help me with this? B:Sure
Sometimes, not all first part accept part two because there is others statement include in there, so the pattern is:
Agent: Do you want the early flight? (Q-1)
Client: What time does it arrive? (Q-2)
Agent: Nine forty-five. (A-2)
Clint: Yeah that’s great. (A-1)

STRUCTURE OF PREFERENCE
In the structure of preference, second part divided two, that are social measure which like and social measure which dislike.
Pattern:
First part Second part(like) (Dislike)
Value Agree Disagree
Inviting Accept Refuse
Offering Accept Refuse
Proposal Agree Disagree
Request Accept Refuse
The answer for second part which like of the request, offering, value or proposal is agree and accept.
Example: First part Second part
A. Can you help me? Sure
B. Isn’t that really great? Yes, it is
• It’s an example that the speaker given’t like answer.
Example:
Sandy : But I’m not sure they’ll have good food there. Hmmm I guess the food isn’t great.
Jack : People mostly go for the music.
• It’s an example that the second speaker give disagree statement.
Example:
Cindy : So chiroprodists do hands I guess.
Julie : Wel out there they mostly go for the music.
• It’s an example that the second speaker which dislike is uncertain in the offering statement.
Example:
Becky : Come over for some coffee later.
Wally : OH.. I’d love to-but you see –I’m supposed to get this finished-you know.
CHAPTER 9
WORD AND CULTURE

The chapter before, Interpretation based on the structure of conversation, especially aspect procedure to take serve to string the speaker, aftr the speaker get it, speaker must stact the structure and what they want their speak, they must summarize their message what they get or didn’t get it by hearer, if speaker decide to write the message, so they must to face to give bait interactive back.
In result, must depend on mecanism structural more explicite to stack their text. Speaker have 2 function that used to language they are:
1. Tectual Function that compose a text that fit and good row.
2. Idealisional Function are describe think and experience.
WORD ANALYSIS
Survey about range space that more wide than form and function that spoken and writen, if analysis limit into elements linguistic matter, so it’s focus in process note (Oral or Writen) where language used to context to clarify desire.
Generally, Interest wide in word struture this perspektif stuctural focus in topic. Example : Context explisite between sentence into text that compose a cohesion or element to arrange text are identify explain. Specifically, study focus in

aspect about how to spoken and writen, we must understand the social interaction matter and analyze conversation to memorize the form and structure text.

COHERENCE
Coherence in spoken and written discourse how to create it and how to describe.
Generally, user wide language are assumption coherence. It’s containing meaning of experience certain with individual because experience would be certain with familiriaty and expect.
Pressing of familiriaty and knowledge as coherence elements was needed because made interpretation was not observe with another alternative.
Example :
Man Robs Hotel with sandwich
If you made an interpretation to that sandwich (may be into bag) sandwich used as weapon, consider that as knowledge background was espect by writer.
KNOWLEDGE OF BACKGROUND
Our ability to interpretation are otomatis that didn’t write or not oral based on the first knowledge structure. The function of stucture are intimate point from the old experience used to interpretation new experience. The term generally is skema. Skema are knowledge structure before on the mind.
If any fixed design, that sure schema, it means frame. Frame that haved together by every people on social group will became prototype version. And then, if the characteristic of schema type more dynamic considered, so the type more always described as script. Script is knowledge structure before that involve rotation system of incident. We use script for making interpretation about the happened of incident. Another case became the rotation of incident that assumption for having together is background of knowledge.
A script concept according to simple recognize from some act rotation that hope on an incident. Because every part of script explanation that assumption ready to know, may be the explanation didn’t revealed. For member that have some culture, about script assumption that have together will give wide road for reveal without said. But the member for different culture, this assumption may be it can became false accomplish.
CULTURE SCHEMA
Almost can not avoid if background knowledge structure, our schema to explain the world, will be fixed by culture. We are develop culture schema in experience context base of us.
PRAGMATIC FLASH CULTURE
Different study hope based on culture schema, is part of wide folded room that common know as pragmatic flash culture. Concept and terminology may be give based analytic skeleton, but realization of concept may be different according to substantial. The different approach to connect between quality and quantity on knowing pragmatic that more comprehensive. Study about culture way different pronounce sometimes means contrastive pragmatic. The research focus according to more special to communicative act from people that not the original pronouns, while try for communication on their second language. The study like that more reveal if we speak with something called dialect pragmatic, is aspect that showing something that we assumption can understand without said.

 

GENRE OF RECOUNT

GENRE OF RECOUNT

I. INTRODUCTION

There are many activities or events that we did or happened in our lives.  And some events or activities are very interesting to be told to others, for examples  some of my friends ever saw the ghost at their houses. According to them those are their experiences which can be very impressive or unforgettable , or it can be our experience that sometimes  really interesting to remember then we  share to others.

To express past activities or past event both in  written or spoken text , we need to know how to express in English context of communication which is  called “ Recount “.  The purpose of recount is to tell past activities or past events , such as personal experience, history, biography or autobiography. And on the next part, we would like to discuss further about the Genre Of Recount”.

II. DISCUSSION

The genre of Recount is a type of text that is used to inform or to tell about the past events or past activities.  Recount Text is  written in Past Simple. But Recount can be expressed both in written or spoken. It can be written from the first or the third person’s point of view. First person means if the events happened to the person who writes the recount. And the third person is as the writer who tells other persons’ experiences.The writer becomes an observer who tells the story. Both of those recounts tell about someone’s experiences that is called personal recount. We use connectives or sequence markers to tell the recount clearly in chronological orders. The purpose of recount is either to inform or to entertain the audience. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative

To arrange recount text we also have to know  some generic or rhetorical structure which consist of :

1. Orientation

In this step we decide or arrange the topic or event that will be told or informed to the readers. On this step, we try to attract or lead the readers to the topic or event that we are going to  inform or to tell, so the readers will focus on the topic. It is where you give an outline of what you are writing about. This part also is Introducing the participants, place and time. The setting or orientation is the background information answering who, when, where and why.

2. Record of Events

On this step, we tell the past activities or events in detail and chronological order. It must be completed with the clear setting ( time and place ).

3. Re-orientation.

The last step in arranging the recount text, we have to conclude the important things that we have told previously, so the readers will understand more or they  notice clearly about the events that happened in chronological order.

It is optional. It is stating personal comment of the writer to the story. And the conclusion expresses a personal opinion regarding the events described. In other words this is where you bring your writing to a close by; saying how things went, saying what you felt about the things that happened and/or mentioning something which will or may happen late

Language Feature of Recount
• Introducing personal participant; I, my group, etc
• Using chronological connection; then, first, etc
• Using linking verb; was, were, saw, heard, etc
• Using action verb; look, go, change, etc

• Using simple past tense

The following examples of Recount Text are given in order to explain more about the genre of recount, :

  • Examples  I

                 Vacation to London

 

Vacation to London

Orientation

Mr. Richard’s family was on vacation. They are Mr. and Mrs. Richard with two sons. They went to London. They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. They had booked fourteen day tour. This includes travel and accommodation. They also included tours around London.

Record of Events

They boarded a large Boeing flight. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly. They gave them news paper and magazine to read. They gave them food and drink. There was a film for their entertainment. They had a very pleasant flight. They slept part of the way.

Record of Events

 On arrival at Heathrow Airport, they had to go to Customs and Immigration. The officers were pleasant. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite. Mr. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk. They arranged the transfer to a hotel. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. The room had perfect view of the park. The room had its own bathroom and toilet. Instead of keys for the room, they inserted a key card to open the door. On the third floor, there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. They had variety of food.

RE-ORIENTATION

The two week in London went by fast. At the end of the 14-day, they were quite tired but they felt very happy.

Ø  The Explanation

By reading the above example of recount text above that was taken from internet ( google ), we can explain as follows :

The Orientation :

The objective of recount text above is the writer tells the readers about someone’ exprerience ( Mr. Richard’s family ) who has vacation to London. The writer tells about the activites of Mr. Richard’s family on their vacation from the first departure until the they came back from London. The writer also tells about the impression of Mr. Richard’s family realated to their vacation to London.

Record of Events :

The writer didn’t tell the detailed activities happened ( when was the time). But the use of Past simple has explained clearly that the events already happened. And the use of sequence markers  also explain that the writer has told the events in chronological order.

Reorientation :

The writer finally made conclusion by telling the impression of Mr. Richard’s Family who was very happy to go to London for 14 days, eventhough they were all tired.

Language Feature of Recount

–          Chronological connection: bold and underlined words

–       Simple Past Tense: bold and  Italic words

     Examples II ( Our First Product ) 

Princess Diana Biography

                ( 1961-1997 )

ORIENTATION

 One of the woman I admire most is “ Diana Frances Spencer” or mostly known as Lady Diana. She was a beautiful and smart princess of English kingdom. She was born in 1961. Diana Got married with Prince Charles in 1981, when she was at the young age of twenty-one and became a member of Britain’s Royal Family.

RECORDS OF EVENTS

Princess Diana has two sons, Prince William and Prince Harry. She loved her sons very much, that was her reason to endure both from the pressure of living in Britain’s Royal Family. Princess Diana had a very good impression with hervitality charm and she liked doing some charity works by touching the lives of sick people and  homeless people, such as in Africa or even Indonesia. She came to them with her warmth and humanity.   

RE-ORIENTATION

People think  that Princess Diana’s life was tragic when she was finally killed by the car accident in the Pont De Alma road tunnel in Paris, on August 31st , 1997. Public were in deep compasion. Diana has passed away and her funeral took place in Westminster Abbey, on September 1997. But her kindness touches  and inspires people to remind her forever.   

 From the second example of recount text above, we would like to discuss more about  recount text and compare the first and the second recounts. 

The orientation

Telling about someone’s bioghraphy is one of the example from recount text. On the example above, the writer is as the third one who tells about  Diana’s Biography that has very impressive life story as a princess of English Kingdom. The writer tells about the history  of her life or the events that happened in her life chronologically. 

Record of events

The biography of Princess Diana is told in detailed, it started from her time of birth until the time when she passed away by completing the important event that happened in her life. The writer also tells about the other informations that can complete and make her biography more interesting, such as ; the pressure of living in Britain’s Royal family. 

Reorientation : 

Finally, the writer made conclusion by the telling the feeling of people related to the tragedy which caused Lady Diana died and also the impression of people about Lady Diana. 

Language Feature of Recount 

– Using chronological connection: bold and underlined words 

– Simple Past: bold and italic words

Ø  We can compare the first and second recount text above, as follows :

1). The first recount tells about someone’s experiences while the second recount tells about someone’s biography, eventhough both the recounts above have different objectives, but both of the texts tell about past events and were told by the third persons as the writers who told their observation about Mr. Richard’s family vacation and about The Biography of Princess Diana.

2). The first recount has unstated time signals  and the sequence marker, but all events were arranged in chronologicaly order in past simple. So, the readers  understand the story that has  happened clearly.  But the second example of recount text is told with detailed time signals, so the readres can remember when  did the important events happen.

3). Both the first and second examples have reorientation or conclusion that explain about thewriters’observation stated in their recounts

 

UNFORGETABLE EXPERIENCE 

 (OurSecondProduct )

ORIENTATION

I had the most unforgetable experience in my life when I was 16 years old.

At that time I was the second grade of Senior High School student. It was a road accident experience.

 I still remember that day vividly when my relatives and I visited our hometown for a holiday but we got the 

accident on the way where our car was upside down .

RECORD OF EVENTS

Actually, the people who went to the home town were father, a brother, two cousins, a driver and I.

 We left an official house in Sragen, central Java where my father worked there.

We should leave the house after praying ‘subuh’ but I didn’t know why my father changed our plan 

and we left at 2 a.m. I felt worried because all day until leaving for hometown, my father hadn’t slept or 

 taken a rest completely. My father himself would drive the car although there was a driver who 

 accompanied us but he sat at the back and slept there.  

 

All the journey I paid attention to my father because I sat beside him. He looked very sleepy and I looked at him he was often to yawn.To disappear his sleepiness, he sang while he was driving. As soon as we entered around Jogjakarta, my father filled in petrol and actually he wanted the driver to drive the car. Because my father didn’t tell anything so the driver sat at the back again. After leaving the petrol station, we went on the journey. 

However, I didn’t remember when I fell asleep and as I was aware suddenly, there was a big tree would be hit by our car. I screamed very loudly and all the people in the car woke up because of my scream. At the same time time our car was upside down at the left side. It happened at about 4 a.m. Apparently, my father fell asleep too while he was still driving even our car had just passed a bridge and it had hit a banana tree and some flower pots. Nobody was injured physically except me, there was only a little thick blood on my left feet. Fortunately, there was a hospital. My father and I went there to care my feet and take a rest for a while and we thought what had just happened.

RE-ORIENTATION

 Finally we didn’t continue our journey and we went back to Sragen especially to the official house.

Fortunately, the car could be still driven despite in very low speed and the driver drove the car because my

father was very stressed with the accident. In the car,We didn’t talk to each other and said nothing.

On theway home, I couldn’t imagine if our car ran into the middle of the road or fell into the ravine because 

my father slept while he was driving the car. That’s my unforgetable experience I think it is a terrible 

experince and I hope it will never happen again.

III. CONCLUSION

From the discussion above, we can take conclusion, as follows :

1). The objective of Recount text is used to tell about the activities or events that already happened in the past.

2). The examples of recount text are :

  – Story of writer’s experiences  and Story about someone’s experiences that was told by the writer as a third person based  on her / his observation. (Personal Recount)

– Factual Recount

– Imaginary Recount

  – Telling about someone’s biography.

  – Telling about history.

– DiarY

3). Recount text must be arranged in correct generic or rethorical structure that consist of :  

§  Orientation

§  Record of events

§  Reorientation

§  We use past simple or sometimes present perfect tense to arrange recount text.

§  We use connectors and sequence markers to arrange recount text to be in chronologically order. But sometimes, recount text used unstated sequence markers as long as the events or activities are clearly explained in chronologically order.

IV. TEACHING SUGGESTIONS

As teachers especially SMA teachers, we have to understand how to teach recount text for both reading and writing skills in English teaching, the following suggestions can be used to teach recount text in integrated English Teaching ( Reading, writing and language components; grammar for past simple ) :

Ø  Use recount text and ask students to read loudly and  silently and check their comprehension by asking some questions related to the text such as :

                                    – What is the topic about.?

                                    – When did it happen.?

                                    – Where did it happen.?

                                    – Who are the participants?…..etc

Ø  Lead the students to understand about orientation, record of event and reorientation by discussing the content of each paragraph, then explain completely using the students’responses.

Ø  Ask students to identify each sentences that are used past simple to express the event or  activities that already happened in the recount text given. Then explain the form and the use of past simple by adopting two or three sentences from each paragraph.

Ø  Ask students to identify the connector or sequence markers are used in the text given, then explain the use of them.

Ø  After the students understand the steps in arranging recount text.

1.        The examples of Diary tell about the important or special  events that already happened last week or several days ago. Then ask students to make their own diary.

2.       The topic s about  telling their experiences, it can be sad, happy or unforgetable experiences. We can start ask the students to make the outline, draft , then we can check or revise their writing, so finally students can rewrite their recounts based on our revision.

4. Teaching Recount Text for Writing

Skills     : Writing

Genre   : Recount Text ( Composing a diary )

Task 1

Ask students to answer these questions and share with their partners!

1. What did you do yesterday morning?

2. What did you do last Sunday?

3. What did you do last night?

Task 2

Ask students to look at the example and ask them to compose their diary based on their answer.

Example :

Jodi is writing a diary. Read the text carefully and underline the past verb!

Monday, 26 September 2011.

I got up late this morning. It was 6.30. I took a bath in hurry. Without having breakfast, I left for school. 

I arrived at school at 07.30 at school. I knocked the door and said greeting. But, all my frieds were laughing. What happened? Oh my God! I brought my mother’s bag. It’s pink and full of flower painting. That was embarassing.

Task 3

– Ask students to fill in the gap with a correct verb!

– Then we check the answers

– Finally we ask students to write a diary using the sentences given.

took – came – had – studied – visited

ext, they can try to arrange recount text by giving :

1.       Pictures which  can be given on slides, then ask them to arrange in correct order based on the time time signals given on the pictures. Then ask them to arrange  as a short composition based on the order of pictures.

2. The examples of Diary tell about the important or special  events that already happened last week or several days ago. Then ask students to make their own diary.

3.    The topic s about  telling their experiences, it can be sad, happy or unforgetable experiences. We can start ask the students to make the outline, draft , then we can check or revise their writing, so finally students can rewrite their recounts based on our revision.

4. Teaching Recount Text for Writing

Skills     : Writing

Genre   : Recount Text ( Composing a diary )

Task 1

Ask students to answer these questions and share with their partners!

1. What did you do yesterday morning?

2. What did you do last Sunday?

3. What did you do last night?

Task 2

Ask students to look at the example and ask them to compose their diary based on their answer.

Example :

Jodi is writing a diary. Read the text carefully and underline the past verb!

Monday, 26 September 2011.

I got up late this morning. It was 6.30. I took a bath in hurry. Without having breakfast, I left for school. 

I arrived at school at 07.30 at school. I knocked the door and said greeting. But, all my frieds were laughing. What happened? Oh my God! I brought my mother’s bag. It’s pink and full of flower painting. That was embarassing.

Task 3

– Ask students to fill in the gap with a correct verb!

– Then we check the answers

– Finally we ask students to write a diary using the sentences given.

took – came – had – studied – visited

1. The minister of education …………….our school yesterday.

2. I ……………..a bath very early. That was very cold.

3. I………………..hard for final examination.

4. I…………..late at school.

5. I………………big breakfast.

Ø  Sources :              – Internet

                                         – Look- A head for SMA 1st Grade – Erlangga

                                         – Linked to the world English Senior High School I

TEACHING MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT: SPEAKING

TEACHING MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT: SPEAKING

  • INTRODUCTION

Speaking is a productive skill. Theoritically, according to O’Grady (1996) , it is a mental process. This means that it is a psychological process by which a speaker puts a mental concept into some linguistic form, such as word, phrases, and sentences used to convey a message to a listener. So the speech production is the process by which the speakers turn their mental concept into their spoken utterences to convey a message to their listeners in the communicative interaction.

Much recent work on optimal conditions for the teaching of speaking in second and foreign language classrooms has been grounded in educational psycholinguistics or in cognitive and social psychology. Theoretical constructs for language pedagogy have been drawn extensively from empirical studies, underpinned by the central notions of second language acquisition: communicative competence (Canale and Swain 1980); comprehensible input (Krashen 1985), negotiated interaction (Ellis 1990, Gass and Varonis 1994, Long 1983, Pica, et al. 1989), input processing (VanPatten and Cadierno 1993), developmental sequences and routes of acquisition (Meisel, Clahsen and Pienemann 1981), and communication strategies (Faerch and Kasper 1983). Such constructs are widely taught in teacher preparation programs in second and foreign language teaching and clearly have relevance to oral language instructional practice.

From a communicative view of the language classroom, listening and speaking skills are closely interwined. ESL. Curricula treat oral communication skills will simply be labelled as “Listening/Speaking” course.

The 4 Language Skills

When we learn a language, there are four skills that we need for complete communication. When we learn our native language, we usually learn to listen first, then to speak, then to read, and finally to write. These are called the four “language skills”:

Skill #1: Listening

Skill #2: Speaking

Skill #3: Reading

Skill #4: Writing

Input is sometimes called “reception” and output is sometimes called “production”. Spoken is also known as “oral”.

Note that these four language skills are sometimes called the “macro-skills”. This is in contrast to the “micro-skills”, which are things like grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation and spelling.

Why should we teach speaking skills in the classroom?

Motivation
               Many students equate being able to speak a language as knowing the language and therefore view learning the language as learning how to speak the language, or as Nunan (1991) wrote, “success is measured in terms of the ability to carry out a conversation in the (target) language.” Therefore, if students do not learn how to speak or do not get any opportunity to speak in the language classroom they may soon get de-motivated and lose interest in learning. On the other hand, if the right activities are taught in the right way, speaking in class can be a lot of fun, raising general learner motivation and making the English language classroom a fun and dynamic place to be.

Speaking is fundamental to human communication

Just think of all the different conversations you have in one day and compare that with how much written communication you do in one day. Which do you do more of? In our daily lives most of us speak more than we write, yet many English teachers still spend the majority of class time on reading and writing practice almost ignoring speaking and listening skills.

Principles for Teaching Speaking

• Focus on fluency and accuracy (depending on lesson/activity objective)

• Use intrinsically motivating techniques based on  student goals and interests

• Use authentic language in meaningful contexts

• Provide appropriate feedback and correction

• Optimize the natural link between listening and  speaking

• Give students the opportunity to initiate oral communication

• Develop speaking strategies

Oral communication skills in pedagogical research

1.      Conversational discourse

 • Attention to conversation rules, sociolinguistic appropriateness, speech styles, routines, etc.

2.      Teaching pronunciation

            • How to teach, yet understanding that accents  will   remain

3.      Accuracy and fluency

            • How to address these two elements of language usage  and language use

4.      Affective factors

            • Creating a climate that encourages students to speak   and to accept imperfections as part of the process

5.      Interaction effect

            • Speaking is a collaborative activity which students must  learn to negotiate

6.      Questions about intelligibility

            • Students must learn to be intelligible, not native speakers

7.      The growth of spoken corpora

  • The one of the key development on teaching our production

8.      Genres of spoken language

  • How to teach variations of oral interaction

Types of spoken language

  • Monologue eg lectures, speeches, recitations.
  • Dialogue eg conversations, interviews, debates, meetings.

Functions of Spoken Language

  • Referential     : utterances that provide information.
  • Expressive      : utterances that express the speaker’s feelings.
  • Transactional: utterances where the main purpose is to get something done or    acquire something.
  • Interactional  : utterances where the main emphasis is on the social relationship between the participants.
  • Phatic             : utterances devoid ofany serious content ‘small talk’, usually conducted with strangers or people only slightly known.

What makes speaking difficult ?

The main cause of what makes speaking difficult in the second stage the formulation. The smaller lexicón or a lack of vocabulary can cause the problem, a weak gramatical and phonological encoders deteriorate the accuracy and fluency of the speak.

Others cause can be the lack of:

Clustering: it’s the fluent speech not word by word, learners can organize their output.

Redundancy: it’s making the meaning of the speech clear

Reduced forms: it’s necessary to learn the reduced form to sound like a native speaker because the reduced forms are used in the daily speech.

Performance variables: it’s the process of thinking as you speak.

Colloquial language: it’s the acquisition of idioms and phrases of colloquial language.

Rate of delivery: it’s the acceptable fluency and speeds at the moment of speak.

Stress, rhythm & intonation: it’s the right intonation and pronunciation of patterns to send important messages

Interaction: it’s the creativity to produce the component waves of language, the creativity to negotiate the conversation.

Tips for the teacher:

–          Use the authenthic language in meaningful context.

–          Give the feedback and be careful with their corrections

–          Teach in conjunction with listening

–           Allows to the student initiate communication

–          Improve the Motivation using a range of many different techniques.

Tips for the improve of the fluency and Accuracy

Fluency:

–          speak at normal speed

–          self-correction

–          smooth use of speech

Accuracy: Speaking using the correct form of grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation.

Micro- and Macroskills of oral communication

The implications of those focusing on both the forms of language and the functions of language. The Forms of language include the types of sentences used (declarative, interrogatory, imperative, exclamatory). Meanwhiie, the functions of language include its purpose and its use.These include the following:

1.  Informative language function: communicating information, such as  facts. 2.  Expressive language function: reporting feelings or attitudes or evoking these feelings in the reader/listener.

3.  Directive language function: using language to cause or prevent  actions, such as in commands or requests

6 TYPES OF SPEAKING PERFORMANCE (THE KINDS OF ORAL PRODUCTION THAT THE STUDENTS ARE EXPECTED TO CARRY OUT IN THE CLASSROOM):

1.      IMITATE

A very limited portion of classroom speaking time may legitimately be spent generating “human tape recorder” speech, where, for example, learners practice an intonation contour or try to pinpoint a certain vowel sound. Imitation of this kind is carried out not for the purpose of meaningful interaction, but for focusing on some particular element of language form.

New teachers in the field always want the answer to this question: Is drilling legitimate part of the communicative language classroom? The answer is a qualifed yes. Drills offer students an opportunity to listen and to orally repeat certain string of language that may pose some linguistic difficulty-either phonological or grammatical. Drills are to language teaching what the pitching machine is the baseball. They offer limited practice through repetition. They allow one to focus on one element of language in a controlled activity. They can help to establish certain psychomotor (“to loosen the tongue”) and to associate selected grammatical forms with their appropriate context. Here are some useful guidelines for successful drills:

  • Keep them short (a few minutes of a class hour only)
  • Keep them simple(preferably just one point at a time)
  • Keep them “snappy”
  • Make sure students know why they are doing the drill.
  • Limit them to phonology or grammar points
  • Make sure they ultimately lead to communicative goals
  • Do not overuse them.

2.      INTENSIVE

Intensive speaking goes one step beyond imitative to include any speaking performance that is designed to practice some phonological or grammatical aspect of language. Intensive speaking can be self-initiated, or it can even form part of some pair work activity, where learners are “going over” certain forms of language.

3.      RESPONSIVE

A good deal of student speech in the classroom is responsive: short replies to teacher or student initiated questions or comments. These replies are usually sufficient and do not extend into dialogues (#4 and #5). Such speech can be meaningful and authentic:

T: how are you today?

S: pretty good, thanks, and you?

4.      TRANSACTIONAL(DIALOGUE)

Transactional language, carried out for the purpose of conveying or exchanging specific information, is an extended form of responsive language. Conversations, for example, may have more of a negotiative nature to them than does responsive speech:

T: What is the main idea in this essay?

S: The United Nations should have more authority

T: More authority than what/

S: Than it does right now

T: What do you mean?

S: Well, for example, the UN should have the power to
force certain countries to destroy its nuclear weapons.

T: You do not think the UN has the power now?

S: Obviously not. Several countries are currently
manufacturing nuclear bombs.

Such conversation could readily be part of group work
activity as well.

1.
INTERPERSONAL(DIALOGUE)

The other form of conversation mentioned in the
previous chapter was interpersonal dialogue, carried out more for the purpose
of maintaining social relationships than for the transmission of facts and
information. These conversation are a little trickier for learners because they
can involve some or all of the following factors:

·A casual register

·Colloquial language

·Emotionally charged language

·Slang

·Ellipsis

·Sarcasm

·A covert “agenda”

For example:

Amy: Hi, Bob. How is it going?

Bob: Oh, so-so

Amy: Not a great weekend, huh?

Bob: Well, far be it from me to criticize, but I am pretty miffed about last week

Amy: What are you talking about?

Bob; I think you know perfectly well what I am talking about.

Amy: Oh, that …. How come you get so bent out of shape over something like that?

Bob: Well, whose fault was it, huh?

Amy: Oh, wow, this is great. Wonderful. Back to square one. For crying out loud, Bob, I thought we’d settled this before. Well, what more can I say?

Learners would need to learn how such features as the relationship between interlocutors, casual style, and sarcasm are coded linguistically in this conversation.

2.
EXTENSIVE (MONOLOGUE)

Finally, students at intermediate to advanced levels
are called on to give extended monologues in the form of oral reports,
summaries, or perhaps short speeches. Here the register is more formal
deliberative. These monologue can be planned or impromptu.

PRINCIPLES FOR TEACHING SPEAKING SKILLS:

1.      Focus on both fluency and accuracy, depending on your objectives

    Accuracy  is  the  extent  to  which  students’  speech  matches  what  peopleactually  say  when  they  use  the  target  language.  Fluency is the extent towhich speakers use the language quickly and confidently, with few hesitations
or unnatural pauses, false starts, word searches, etc.

In our current interactive language teaching, we can easily slip into
interactive activities that don’t capitalize on grammatical pointers or
pronunciation tips. We need to bear in mind a spectrum of learner needs, from language-based focus on accuracy to message-based focus on interaction, meaning and fluency. When you do a jigsaw group technique, play a game, or discuss solutions to the environmental crisis, make
sure that your tasks have a linguistic (language-based) objective, and seize the opportunity to help students to perceive and use the building blocks of language
. At the same time, don’t bore your students to death with lifeless, repetitious drills. As noted above, make any drilling you do as
meaningful as possible. The student can not develop fluency if the teacher is constantly interrupting them to correct their oral errors. Teachers must provide students with fluency
building practice and realize that making mistakes is a natural part of learning a new language. 

2.      Provide intrinsically motivating techniques

Try at all times to appeal to students’ ultimate goals and interests, to their need for knowledge, for status, for achieving competence and autonomy, and for “being all that they can be”. Even in those techniques that don’t send students into ecstasy, help them to see how the activity will benefit them. Often students don’t know why we ask them to do certain things, it usually pays to tell them.

1.      Encourage the use of authentic language in meaningful contexts

This theme has been played time and again. It is not easy to keep coming up with meaningful interaction. We all succumb to the temptation to do, say, disconnected little grammar exercises where we go around the room calling on students one by one to pick the right answer. It takes energy and creativity to devise authentic contexts and meaningful interaction, but
with the help of a storehouse of teacher resource material, it can be done
.

2.      Provide appropriate feedback and correction

In most EFL situations, students are totally dependent on the teacher for useful linguistic feedback. In ESL situations, they may get such feedback “out there” beyond the classroom, but even then you are in a position to be of great benefit. It is important that you take advantage of your knowledge of English to inject the kinds of corrective feedback that are appropriate for the moment.

3.      Capitalize on the natural link between speaking and listening

Many interactive techniques that involve speaking will also of course include listening. Don’t lose out on opportunities to integrate these two skills. As you are perhaps focusing on speaking goals, listening goals may naturally coincide, and the two skills can reinforce each other. Skills in producing language are often initiated through comprehension.

4.      Give students opportunities to initiate oral communication

A good deal of typical classroom interaction is characterized by teacher initiation of language. We ask questions, give directions, and provide information and students have been conditioned only to “speak when spoken to.” Part of oral communication competence is the ability to initiate conversation, to nominate topics, to ask questions, to control conversations, and to change the subject. As you design and use speaking technique, ask yourself if you have allowed students to initiate language. 

5.      Encourage the development of speaking strategies.

The concept of strategic competence (see Chapter 16:PLLT, chapters 5 and 8) is one that few beginning language students are aware of. They simply have not thought about developing their own personal strategies for accomplishing oral communicative purposes. Your classroom can be done in which students become aware of, and have a chance to practice, such strategies as:

·asking for clarification (what?)

·asking someone to repeat something (pardon me?, Huh?Excuse me?)

·using fillers (uh, I mean, Well) in order to gain (to get) time to process

·using conversation maintenance cues (Uh-huh,Right, Yeah, OK, Hmm)

·getting someone’s attention (Hey, Say, So)

·using paraphrasing for structures one can’t produce

·appealing for assistance from the interlocutor (to get a word or phrase, for example)

·using formulaic expressions (at the survival-stage) (How much does____cost?How do you get to the____?)

·using mime and non-verbal expressions to convey meaning

TEACHINGCONVERSATION

According to
Richard (1990: 76 – 77) thera are two major approaches characterize current
teaching of conversation :

  1. An Indirect approach in which learners are more or less set loose to engage in interaction
  2. A direct approach that involves planning a conversation program around the specific microskills, strategies, and process that are involved in fluent conversation.

Richard (p. 79) was somewhat critical of task based instruction, which he labeled an indirect approach, because in the task the focus is on using language to complete task, rather than on practicing language.

Richard (1990:78-80) offered the following list of features of conversation that can receive specific focus in classroom instruction :

1.

  1. How to use conversation for both transactional and interactional purposes
  2. How to produce both short and long turn in conversation
  3. Strategies in managing turn-taking in conversation, including taking a turn, holding a turn, and relinquishing a turn.
  4. Strategies for opening and closing conversation
  5. How to initiate and respond to talk on a broad range of tropics, and how to develop and maintain talk on these topics.
  6. How to use both a casuals type of speaking and a neutral or more formal social gathering
  7. Strategies for repairing trouble spots in conversation including communication breakdown and comprehension problems
  8. How to maintain fluency in conversation  through avoiding excessive pausing, breakdowns, errors of grammar or pronunciation.
  9. How to produce talk in a conversation mode, using a conversational lister and syntax
  10. How to use conversational fillers and small talk
  11. How to use conversational routines.

A.      Conversation-Indirect (strategy consciounsness-raising)

  1. Plan your timeLevel        : Intermediate or above

    Time         : 30-35 minutes

    Aim          : for students to consider ways in which they can learn English outside the classroom.

    Preparation: Make fhotocopies of the task sheet for your class.

    Procedure :

    1. Arouse student interest in the planning task.
    2. Set up the initial pair work and give the students five to ten minutes to discuss, add to, or modify the list of  suggestions.
    3. When the initial discussion is over, you should facilitate the  setting up of the groups. Allow the groups a maximum of twenty minutes to complete the planning task.
    4. Chair the report-back session in which each group presents its suggestion. Make posters available to help the groups present their ideas.

    Task sheet :

    Here is the a of techniques that people use to help them learn English outside the classroom :

    1. Memorizing a list of words
    2. Reading a grammar book
    3. Doing a grammar exercises
    4. Reading a book or a magazine in Engish
    5. Re-copying things  from their class notebook
    6. Correcting  mistakes made in written work
    7. Preparing the next  unit of the coursebook
    • Work with your partner and  add any others of your own. Tell each other which ones in the list you find helpfull, if any, then tell the class about the new one you have added.
    • Arrange yourselves in groups and take a time period from this list :

    -Thirty minutes per day for six days in a week
    -One hour per day for five days a week
    -Two hours per day for four days a week
    -In a group plan a program to show how you could make use of the time to do extra work on your English. Use the ideas from the earliest list, as well as any other you can think of. Choose one person to present your plan to the rest of the class.
    Remark
    If student agree to experiment with a study plan, some time should be allowed in classroom for them to discuss how they are getting on.

    A.      Conversation-Direct (gambits)Is that right ?

    Level                     : Elementary and above

    Time                      : 10 – 15 minutes

    Aim                        : To help students recognize gambits

    Preparation         : Find a short cassette or radio recording of two or three people chatting naturally. Identify examples of short responses being used and put them in random order on a task sheet, chalkboard, or OHT, along the following lines. You can add dis tractors if you wish. The task sheet might look like this :

    Task sheet             : Read the following list of  expression, listen to the tape. Tick (   ) any of the expression  you hear. You may hear some expressions more than once :

    Is that right            : _____________

    That’s great ! __________________

    Really ……             : _____________

    Oh dear                     ____________

    How interesting    : _____________

    What a shame _________________

    Er… hum….            : _______________

    Oh, no             __________________

    Fine                       :  _______________

    You’re joking  __________________

    I see                       :  ______________

    PROCEDURE

    1. Give a task sheet to each student and ask them to tick off the examples they hear on the tape.
    2. When they heve done this, choose two or three examples to focus on and if the students can recall the utterances that precede or follow them  on the tape.

    B.       Conversation (Transactional (ordering from a catalog)Informational Gap Activity

    You are a telephone salesperson  for the Best Wear Company. Your partner is a customer.  Your partner is a customer. Your partner calls to order some items from your company’s catalog. Take the order and fill out the order form. Make sure you have written the order correctly by asking your partner to confirm it. Don’t look at your partner’s page !

    Ordered by :                                                Ship to : (Use only if different from “Ordered by”)

    Name                    : _____________

    Address                               : _____________

    City                        : _____________

    State                     : _____________

    Telephone          : _____________

     

     

    Item Number Quantity Color Size Description Unit Price Total
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                                                                                           Merdhandise total

    Shippping and handling

    Total

     
     
     

    Check method of payment :

    (     ) check / money order

    (     ) visa

    (     ) master card

     

    Card number                     : _______________

    Expiration date                 : _______________

     

    Useful language                               :

     

    Answering the telephone            : Hello, Best Wear Company

    Asking for information                   : What’s the item number (or price ! )

    : What color would  you like ?

    Confirming the order                    : Did you say  the item number (or price, color, size) was …

    Ending the conversation               : Thank you for your order. Good bye …

     

    1. A.      Individual practice         : Oral dialog journals

    Written dialogue journals where students records thoughts, ideas, and/or reactions, and the teacher reads and responds with written comments.

    B.       Other Interactive techniques Of course, many other task and techniques can be applied to the teaching of conversation. They are almost impossible to categorize, but here are a few possible types, gleaned simply from the  table of contents of Friederike Klippel’s (1984) practically  litte resource book :

    • Interviews
    • Guessing games
    • Jigsaw tasks
    • Ranking exercises
    • Discussion
    • Values clarification
    • Problem solving activities
    • Role play
    • Simulations

    Teaching Pronunciation

    Advice for Teaching Pronunciation: How to Help Your Students Excel

    Pronunciation is an extremely important part of the teaching of English. Regardless of how good a students reading, writing and vocabulary skills are, if they can’t pronounce words correctly, then listeners will not be able to understand them.

    Teaching pronunciation can seem quite intimidating to some teachers, particularly if you are a new ESL teacher. However, if you break your task down into step-by-step chunks, it becomes much more simple than it may seem at first.

    People from different parts of the world have various difficulties when it comes to pronouncing English words and sounds. For example, there is no ‘R” sound in some languages, and these people tend to use an ‘L’ sound instead.

    How To Teach Pronunciation

    Start With Sounds

    Before you get on with teaching your students how to pronounce words, you should focus on sounds. Begin by teaching your students phonemes. This will pay off in the long run and will prevent your students from making lots of pronunciation mistakes.

    Move on to Words

    After the students have mastered basic phonemes, including short and long vowels, you can move on to pronunciation of words.

    When teaching work pronunciation, teach your students spelling patterns , and associate the phonemes they have already learned with the right spelling patterns. This helps the students to internalize the rules of English spelling and will make it easier for them to pronounce written words correctly.

    It’s also helpful to separate words into one-syllable and multi-syllable words. This way they can start with basic words and move onto more complicated ones. Make sure you teach them how to count syllables.

    Getting More Advanced: Sentences, Intonation, Rhythm

    After getting to grips with phonemes and words, your students can move on to the more difficult part.

    Learning sentences and conversation structures can be very complicated for foreign students. There are several factors such as stress, intonation, and rhythm that need to be learned. This part is not easy to teach as it can only really develop naturally over time.

    Practice makes perfect, so encourage your students to practice as much as they can at home, and suggest that they watch English TV programs so they can get a feel how people converse in the English language.

    One of the main obstacles in teaching pronunciation is the nervousness and lack of confidence that students have. Remember that your role as teacher is to encourage students constantly and praise even their smallest developments. If you can keep your students positive and focused, their development will enhance no doubt.

    Practice Stress and Intonation

    Students can quickly improve their English pronunciation skills by focusing on stress and intonation. This lesson helps students recognize which words to focus on to improve their pronunciation skills.

    Descriptions of the sound and mouth position can help students increase their awareness of subtle sound differences.

    1. Voicing
      Voiced sounds will make the throat vibrate.
    2. Aspiration
      Aspiration refers to a puff of air when a sound is produced. Many languages have far fewer aspirated sounds than English, and students may have trouble hearing the aspiration. The English /p/, /t/, /k/, and /ch/ are some of the more commonly aspirated sounds.
    3. Mouth Position
      Draw simple diagrams of tongue and lip positions. Make sure all students can clearly see your mouth while you model sounds. Have students use a mirror to see their mouth, lips, and tongue while they imitate you.
    4. Intonation
      Word or sentence intonation can be mimicked with a kazoo, or alternatively by humming. This will take the students’ attention off of the meaning of a word or sentence and help them focus on the intonation.
    5. Linking
      We pronounce phrases and even whole sentences as one smooth sound instead of a series of separate words.
    6.  Vowel Length
      You can demonstrate varying vowel lengths within a word by stretching rubber bands on the longer vowels and letting them contract on shorter ones. Then let the students try it.
    7. Syllable

    Have students count syllables in a word and hold up the correct number of fingers,or place objects on table to represent each syllable.

    1. Illustrate syllable stress by clapping softly and loudly corresponding to the syllables of  a word.
      1. g.      Specific Sounds
      • Minimal pairs, or words such as ‘bit/bat’ that differ by only one sound, are    useful for helping students distinguish similar sounds.
      • Tongue twisters are useful for practicing specific target sounds, plus they’re fun. Make sure the vocabulary isn’t too difficult.
      • The Sounds of English, American Accent Training, and EnglishClub.com websites below offer guidelines for describing how to produce various English sounds.

      The factors within learners that affect pronunciation.

      • Native language

      The native language is the most influential factor affecting a leaner`s pronunciation.

      • Age

      Generally speaking, children under the age of puberty stand an excellent chance of “sounding like native” if they have continued exposure in authentic contexts.

      • Exposure

      It is difficult to define exposure. One can actually live in a foreign country for some time but not take advantage of being”with the people.

      • Innate phonetic ability

      Often referred to as having an “ear” for language, some people manifest a phonetic coding ability that others do not.

      • Identity and language ego

      Yet another influence is one`s attitude toward speakers of the target language and the extent to which the language ego identifies with those speakers.

      • Motivation and concern for good pronunciation

      Some learners are not particularly concerned about their pronunciation, while others are.

             How to create a pitch word

      Pitch words are created similarly to stressed words. Both kinds of words have some or all of        the following characteristics in their stressed syllable:

      • altered pitch
      • lengthening
      • increase in loudness
      • However, there are differences between stressed words and pitch words, both in their creation and their use. In short, the stressed syllables of pitch words are louder, longer, and have a greater change in pitch than the stressed syllables of stress words. Pitch words also convey more information than stressed words.

                 Differences between stressed words and pitch words

      Stressed words are:

      • the important words of the sentence, the words that comprise the contents of the dialog and help the listener and speaker focus on the same information
      • said with a slight pitch change, a little louder, or for more time than surrounding words
      • used to create the underlying rhythm of English.

      Pitch words are:

      • the most valuable and relevant words, the words that allow the interpretation of the dialog.
      • said with a greater change in pitch, loudness, or length of time than stressed words.

      Focus on form and error treatment

      • Treatment of Error in Second Language Student Writing is the book many writing teachers have long been looking for: a highly accessible and principled approach to the    theory and practice of error treatment that can guide pedagogical decision-making.

      Minimal pair

      • Minimal pairs are pairs of words that only have one sound different.
      • Example
        ‘But’ and ‘bat’ are a minimal pair. Only the vowel sound is different.
      • In the classroom
        Minimal pairs are a useful way to highlight a sound in a meaningful context and also to show the learner how important correct pronunciation of the sound is. Activities to practise minimal pairs include reverse dictation (the teacher writes what the learners say on the board), tongue twisters and drilling.

      Role of Feedback

      • Students need to get feedback as they work. What specific feedback they need depends, of course, on exactly what they are doing and how they are doing it. Take two students who are learning biology by playing the part of a manager of a wildlife park. One might need guidance on how to balance short-term and long-term goals. Another might need details about what habitat herons prefer.
      • Schools tend to not be very good at giving students the feedback they need. Sometimes, the only feedback a student gets is a grade. When students do get feedback that has some content to it, it’s typically because they get it during class discussion when all the students are getting the same feedback at the same time.

      When and How to treat Errors

      When we should threat the error is not easy.  James hendrickson advised teachers to try to discern the difference between global and local errors. Hendrickson recommended that local errors usually need not be corrected since the message is clear and correction might interrupt a learner  in the flow of productive communication. Global errors need to be threaten in some way since the massage may otherwise remain garbled. Many utterances are not clearly global or local, and it is difficult to discern necessity for corrective feedback.

      The matter of how to treat errors is complex.  Research on error correction methods is not at all conclusive on the most effective method or technique. It seems quite clear that students in the classroom generally want and expect errors to be be corrected. However some method recommend no direct treatment of

      error at  all. The research William shows the best way to help a learner to repair malformed utterances is, first, to assist the learner in noticing an incorrect form ( trough recast, prompts, and other attention-getting divices ) and second, for the learner to initiate repair ( with as little promting as possible from the teacher ). The teacher needs to develop the intuition, trough experience and established theoretical fondation, for ascertaining which option or combination of options is appropriate at given moments. Principles of optimal affective and cognitive feedback, of reinforcement theory, and of communicative language teaching all combine to form those intuitions. There are some information “ A model for treatment of classroom  speech errors “.

      DEVIANT UTTERANCE

      1. Type ( lexical, phonological, grammatical,discourse,pragmatic,sociocultural)
      2. Source (L1,L2, teacher induced other ss, outside L2 input,print, electronic media)
      3. Linguistic Complexity (intricate and involved, easy to explain/deal with
      4. Local or Global
      5. Mistake or Error
      6. Learner’s Affective state (Language ego fragility, anexiety, confidence, receptiveness)
      7. Learner’s  Linguistic State  ( emergent, presystematic, systematic, postsystematic.
      8. Pedagogical Focus ( immediate task goals,lesson objectives, course goals/purposes
      9. Communicative context ( conversation flow factors, individual,group, or whole class work.
      10. Teacher Style ( direct or indirect, interventionist, laizzes-faire )

      Based on the information above, now we ready to decide wether to treat or ignore the deviation, if you decide to do nothing you simply move on. But if you decide to do something in the way of treatment, you have a number of treatment options, you have to decide when to treat, who will treat, and how to treat. Notice that you,the teacher do not always have to be the person who provides the treatment. Manner of treatment varies according to the input to the students, the directness of the treatment, the students output and the teacher follow up.

      ASSESSING SPEAKING IN THE CLASSROOM

      Assessing speaking skills in the classroom has one clear advantages over assessing listening: speech is observable, recordable, and measurable. However, once the criterion of your assessment moves beyond the phonological level, this advantage quickly dissapear as acceptable responses are more difficult to specify reliably. There are three criteria in speaking assessing in the classroom :

      1. Specify the category of speaking performance ( from imitative to extensive)
      2. Describe micro and macro skills that are to be assessed
      3. The genre of spoken language that being assessed

      Item Types and Task for Assessing speaking

      There are some options for assessing spoken languange at the various levels of performance :

      1. Imitative speaking tasks

       

      • minimal pair repetition
      • word/phrase repetition
      • sentence repetition

       

      1. Intensive speaking tasks

       

      • directed response
      • read-aloud
      • oral sentence completion
      • oral close procedure
      • dialogue completion
      • Picture cued elicitation of grammatical item
      • Translation

    1. Responsive speaking tasks

     

    • picture cued elicitation of response or description
    • map cued elicitation of directions
    • question and answer
    • question elicitation
    • elicitation of instructions
    • paraphrasing

     

    1. Interactive speaking tasks

     

    • oral interviews
    • role plays
    • discussions and conversations
    • games

     

    1. Extensive speaking task

     

    • Oral presentations ( in academic or profesional contexts )
    • Picture cued ( extensive ) story telling
    • Retelling a story or news event
    • Translation of an extended text

    Evaluating and Scoring Speaking Tasks

    The evaluation of oral pruduction performance can quite complicated.  The first we have to be clear about the level language that our targeting. There are at least six possible criteria that we can use :

    1. Pronunciation
    2. Fluency
    3. Vocabulary
    4. Grammar
    5. Discourse features ( cohesion, sosiolinguistic appropriateness)
    6. Task (accomplishing the objective of the task )

    Some scales add “ comprehension “ to account for the extent to which a student has comprehended directions or elicitation. We can use categories such as, beginning, intermediate, and advanced as potential levels.  Whatever category that you use the most important is to describe them as clearly as possible in order to make reliable evaluations.

PAST TENSE POWER POINT

Present Tense

PRESENT TENSE  (TENSES UNTUK MASA SEKARANG)

TOBE—->NO VERB

VERB—->NO TOBE

  • FUNCTION : TO SHOW THE DAILY ACTIVITIES ( MENUNJUKAN KEGIATAN SEHARI-HARI)
  • TIME SIGNAL:

1. EVERY………(SETIAP)

Every minutes, Every hour, Everyday, Every week, Every month, Every year

2. ADVERB OF FREQUENCY:

  •   A: ALWAYS( SELALU)U: USUALLY(BIASANYA)O:OFTEN(SERING)S:SOMETIMES(KADANG-KADANG)

    S:SELDOM/RARELY(JARANG)

    N:NEVER(TIDAK PERNAH)

    3. ON……………(PADA)

    On Monday, On Tuesday, On Wednesday, On Thursday, On Friday, On Saturday,   On Sunday

    PATTERN(RUMUS):

    FOR: TOBE PRESENT(IS, AM, ARE)—->  NO VERB

    IN POSITIVE SENTENCE:

    EXAMPLE:

    She is beautiful (ADJ)

    He is in the house (ADV of PLACE)

    It is always in the morning (ADV of TIME)

    They are often workers (NOUN)

    IN NEGATIVE SENTENCE:

    EXAMPLE:

    He is not diligent (ADJ)

    We aren’t in the bathroom (ADV of PLACE)

    EXAMPLE:

    It isn’t often at night (ADV of TIME)

    You are not always a College Student (NOUN)

    IN INTROGATIVE SENTENCE/ QUESTION:

    EXAMPLE:

    Are you sick? (ADJ)

    Is she in Mall? (ADV of PLACE)

    EXAMPLE:

    Is it usually at 12.00 o’clock? (ADV of TIME)

    Are they always bad sons? (NOUN)

    TASK 1.FILL WITH TOBE PRESENT

    It____ (1)Sunday. The students ____(2)not at school. They _____(3) at the beach with their teachers. Miss Ann and Miss Murni _____(4) their teachers. Miss Ann _____(5) under the umbrella. Miss Murni_____(6) beside her. Amir and Hasan _____(7) in front of the teachers. Some students_____(8) in the beach. They _____(9) happy. It_____(10) their holiday time.

    VERB—> NO TOBE

    IN POSITIVE SENTENCE:

    ¡EXAMPLE:

    THEY GO TO SCHOOL

    ¡EXAMPLE:

    HE SINGS A SONG

    ¡ALL VERB ADD BY S EXCEPT THE VERBS WHICH HAVE THE LAST LETTERS:

    O————————>  GO    : HE GOES TO BSI

    CH———————->  WATCH  : SHE WATCHES TV

    SH——————–>   WASH     : HE WASHES THE PLATES

    SS——————–>    PASS     : SHE PASSES THE BUTTER

    X———————–>    FIX  : HE FIXES THE CAR

    KONSONANT+Y——->    FLY  : HE FLIES THE KITES

    BUT VOCAL + Y—->MUST BE ADDED BY S  : SHE PAYS A HOUSE

    EXAMPLE: WE DO NOT (DON’T) STAND IN FRONT OF THE CLASS

    EXAMPLE: SHE DOES NOT (DOESN’T) WAKE UP EARLY IN THE MORNING

    EXAMPLE: DOESN’T HE  TAKE A BATH

                          DON’T WE SEE THE BIRDS

    Task 2.FILL WITH VERB

    On Saturday the children ______(1. visit) the Zoo. They _____(2.want) to see the animal. Tini ______(3.go) to the monkey house. She______(4. bring) the bananas for the monkeys. She_______(5.see) the monkeys and_____(6.give) them bananas. Eddi and Wina_______(7.go) to the Elephant house. They _____(8.take) biscuits for the elephant. Dina and Udin_______(9.visit) the lion house. But they_________(10. not give) anything for the lion. They____(10. watch) the lions. They____(11.eat) meat. Emma and Alan are in the bird house. A blue bird____(12.eat),a red bird _____(13.sing) beautifully, a green bird________(14.fly) and the others_____(15. sleep). The children ____(16.see)the animal for hours. They_______(17. feel) tired and hungry. They______(18.take) rest and some food for themselves.

    VERB, TOBE,AND ADVERB OF FREQUENCY
    ADV. OF FREQUENCY IS BEFORE VERB
    ADV. OF. FREQUENCY IS AFTER TOBE

    ¡  TASK 3. ARRANGE THE WORS INTO GOOD ORDER!

    1.Rahman- afternoon-plays-every-always-football-Monday

    2.Eka-late-night-sleeps-at-never

    3.Orin-often-Sunday-to-zoo-the-morning-on-goes

    4.Vera-visits-grandmother-Saturday-on-afternoon-her-often

    5.I-at-7.30-do-my-always-homework-p.m

    6.He-lazy-seldom-is

    7.They-in-sometimes-are-the-library

    8.She-always-is-a-college-student.

    TASK 4. FILL THE BLANK WITH A SUITABLE WORDS

    MY FATHER______(1.WORK) VERY HARD. HE ____(2. GET, USUALLY) HOME VERY LATE. HE______(3. HAVE, NEVER) TIME TO HELP ME WITH MY HOMEWORK. HE _____(4.TOBE) A BUSY PERSON, BUT HE ______(5. SMILE AND TELL, ALWAYS) STORIES. I ______(6.LIKE) TO PLAY WITH MY FATHER.

    MY MOTHER _______(7. STAY, USUALLY) AT HOME. SHE ______(8.TOBE) BUSY TOO. SHE _________(9.TAKE CARE) THE FAMILY AND THE HOUSE. SHE _______(10.NEVER, SPEAK) ENGLISH. SHE ______(11.TOBE) A DILIGENT AND KIND PERSON. MY MOTHER AND I _______(12.OFTEN, GO) OUT. I ________(13.HAVE) ONE BROTHER. HIS NAME ______(14.TOBE) BONDAN. HE ________(15.ALWAYS, FLY) THE  KITES IN THE AFTERNOON WITH ME. HE _______(16.TOBE) SOMETIMES NAUGHTY BUT HE _____(17.TOBE) KIND AND FUNNY. HE______(18.CRY, ALWAYS) WHEN HE _____(19.ASK) FOR A GLASS OF MILK. I _____(20.LOVE) MY FAMILY.

CONTRAST BETWEEN ENGLISH AND INDONESIAN

English foreign language has become a much studied by students today. As we know that there are differences between English and Indonesian.  These differences can make the indonesian learners get difficulties in learning English. The differences are also predicted to be difficult things for the English learners who learn Indonesian. The differences between Indonesian and English are as follows:

Differences Between the two Languages

1. Bahasa Indonesia is still a root-based language with nice complete root word families while English has diverged and the study of root words is not as useful. Many original English root words are now not used and forgotten although some of their derived forms remain popular.

2. English has tenses for verbs while bahasa Indonesia has no similar concept.

3. Bahasa Indonesia doesn’t have gender (male/female/neuter personal pronouns)

4. Bahasa Indonesia doesn’t have a plural suffix which is comparable to the English “s”. Indonesian plural concept is understood by context or by the addition of other words to express the concept of something being “more than one”.

5. Pronunciation is different but not drastically different.

6. Bahsaa Indonesia doesn’t use contractions such as aren’t, won’t, etc.

7. Indonesian sentences almost always have the primary thought or focus on the beginning of the sentence, the main thought comes first and the adjunct second. English is more varied and inconsistent.

8. Many English words can be used in different ways (e.g. same-spelled words with different meanings) while bahasa Indonesia has fewer.

9. Modifying adjectives are usually placed before the noun in English but after nouns in bahasa Indonesia

10. There are no articles in bahasa Indonesia (no a, an or the), although the se- prefix can act in a similar manner such as in secarik = a scrap or sebuah = a piece (of fruit).

11. English doesn’t use the circumfix affix

12. English uses figurative forms a lot more frequently than in bahasa Indonesia

13. English has different spellings for 3rd person singular verbs while bahasa Indonesia does not change the verb. (example: “I go, you go, he goes” – “I go” is 1st person singular, “you go” is 2nd person singular and “he goes” is 3rd person singular with “goes” as a different spelling of “go”.)

14. Hyphens – English uses hyphens to form adjectives & nouns from differing words, compounding them with the combined meaning (e.g.  life-giving = adj.). Bahasa Indonesia uses hyphens for repetition of the same word or almost-same words (reduplication, expressing repetition or indicating things smaller than real size like toys).

15. In spoken Indonesian, there are no linking verbs corresponding to the English words “be, am, is, are, was, were”.

16. interrogative in English is bounded with the position, form, verb and time, meanwhile in Indonesian it is not.

17. There are four differences between English and Indonesian prepositional meaning place.

(1) Based on the meaning, to indicate the place, Indonesian prepositional meaning place use di while English prepositional meaning place use in, on, and at.

(2) Based on the meaning, the use of English prepositional meaning place above and over are different from Indonesian prepositional meaning place di atas to indicate the place that higher than a point.

(3) Based on the meaning, the use of English prepositional meaning place under,underneath, beneath and below are different from the Indonesian prepositional meaning place di bawah to indicate the place that lower than a point.

(4) Based on the meaning, the use of English prepositional meaning place between and among are different from Indonesian prepositional meaning place di antara to indicate the place on side of a person or thing that has two sides.

18. Based on the tenses, in English, if an action was happen in past, the verbs automatically was changed but in Indonesian was not.

19. Based on the type, in Indonesian has eleven kinds of adverbs..
20. Personal Pronoun

There are no differences between personal pronoun and possesive pronoun in bahasa Indonesia. Example (contoh):
Saya/aku = I, me, my

= I am Zata = Saya Zata

= That was me (in that picture)= itu saya

= My house  = rumah saya

21. Pronouns

There are two forms of “we”, kami or kita, depending on whether the speaker includes the person being talked to. Kami (exclusive) is used when the person or people being spoken to are not included, while kita (inclusive) includes the opposite party. Their usage is increasingly confused in colloquial Indonesian. There are two major forms of “I”, which are saya and aku. Despite having the same meaning, saya is definitely the more formal form, whereas Aku is used often used with family, friends and between lovers. There are three common forms of “you”, which are kamu, Anda and kalian. Anda is the more polite form of “you” and is used in conversations with someone you barely know, advertising, business situations or with someone whom you wish to respect. Kalian is the common plural form of “you” and is often said to be slightly informal.

NB: Because of the overall structure of Indonesian society and influences from regional dialects, many more different pronouns exist in Indonesian. Some of these ‘additional pronouns’ may show utmost politeness and respect (eg. saudara/saudari = you (male/female) or Anda sekalian = you (polite, plural form)), may be used only in the most informal of situations (eg. gua/ lu = me/ you – see Indonesian slang), or may even possess somewhat romantic or poetic nuances(eg. daku/dikau = me/you).

Demonstrative pronouns

There are two kinds of demonstrative pronouns in the Indonesian language. Ini (this, these) is used for a noun which is generally near to the speaker. Itu (that, those) is used for a noun which is generally far from the speaker. There is no difference between singular form and the plural form. However, plural can be indicated through duplication of a noun followed by a demonstrative pronoun. Also, the word yang is often placed before demonstrative pronouns to give emphasis and a sense of certainty, particularly when making references or enquiries about something/ someone.

Pronoun in Indonesian: the singular third person, either male or female, has the same term, i.e. dia

23. Noun Phrase Formation

In Engish, the noun position is after the modifier, but in bahasa Indonesia is the other way. The noun position is before the modifier.
Contoh:               My book           Nice house

Buku saya         Rumah bagus

24. Article 

In bahasa Indonesia, sometimes you can skip the articles  a, an, and the because the role of articles is not important. However , in English, an article is very important because it is grammatical requirement.

Contoh:

I am doctor

Saya  dokter

SBY is the president of the Republic of Indonesia

SBY        presiden         Republik Indonesia

BUT………………
I have a car. They have 3 cars.

Saya punya satu mobil. Mereka punya tiga mobil.*

*You have to translate a in that sentence because you  comparing something.

25. To Be

In casual language or colloquial, you don’t need to translate To be (is/am/are/was/were/be/been). Contoh:

My name is jane      = Nama saya Jane.

I am American        = Saya orang Amerika.

I am a doctor        = Saya dokter

He is my husband     = Dia suami saya.

They are my children = Mereka anak (-anak) saya.

26. Tenses

They are no verb changes in bahasa Indonesia (to show the  tenses). We can understand the tenses from time markers or even from the context. Indonesian does not have Tense marker as English does.  English has both time marker and tense. Indonesian has only the time adverbs but not the tenses. Moreover, in Indonesian, the form of the verbs does not change although the time changes.

Contoh:

Present tense

I goto school (today).

Saya pergike sekolah (hari ini).

Past Tense

I wentto the office yesterday.

Saya pergi ke kantor kemarin.

27.Plural
The first idea to be discussed in this paper lies on the idea of plural. Plural here refers to the form of a noun or a verb which refers to more than one person or thing. English expresses plural implicitly by creating patterns how to use –s and –es. Indonesian on the other hand expresses plural explicitly and is made by reduplicating the singular form. No definite rules how to create a plural form of a word except by reduplicating it, e.g rumah-rumah, mobil-mobil.

Contoh:
Book      = buku                                  (singular)        boy= anak lelaki

Books     = buku-buku                                    (plural)             boys=anak-anak lelaki

2 books   = 2 buku (not 2 buku-buku)

The idea of plural can be clearly seen trough the following examples:

Indonesian                                                                 English

Serigala itu binatang                                                A wolf is an animal
Wolves are animal
Wolf is animal

Hiu itu ikan apa mamalia?                                        Is a shark fish or mammal?
Are sharks fish or mammal?
Is shark fish or mammal?

Tukang pos selalu membawa surat                      A postman always brings letters
Postmen always bring letters
Postman always bring letters

Hewan peliharaan membutuhkan perhatian         A pet needs care
Pets need care
Pet need care

From the example above, we can see that in English, the ideas of plural are expressed in many ways. A final –s or –es is added to a noun to make a noun plural. Sometimes, the changing a (man) to e (men) is also needed to indicate plural. A final –s or –es is added to a verb I when the subject is a singular noun (a wolf, a shark, a pet) or a third a person singular pronoun (she, he, it) (Azar, 1989)

28.Word order

Adjectives, demonstrative pronouns and possessive pronouns follow the noun they modify. The basic word order of Indonesian is Subject Verb Object (SVO). However many Indonesians will speak in a passive/objective voice, making use of the Object Verb Subject word order. This OVS word order in Indonesian will often permit the omission of the subject and/or object (i.e. ellipses of noun/pronoun) and can benefit the speaker/writer in two ways:

1) Adding a sense of politeness and respect to a statement or question

Ultimately, the choice between active and passive voice (and therefore word order) is a choice between actor and patient and depends quite heavily on the language style and context.

2) Convenience when the subject is unknown, not important or implied by context

For example, a friend may enquire as to when you bought your property, to which you may respond

Ultimately, the choice between active and passive voice (and therefore word order) is a choice between actor and patient and depends quite heavily on the language style and context.

29.Word Formation

Indonesian is an agglutinative language and new words are generally formed via three methods. New words can be created through affixation (the attaching of affixes onto root words), formation of a compound word (a composition of two or more separate words), or reduplication (repetition of words or portions of words).

Adjectives

Unlike in English, adjectives in the Indonesian language follow the nouns that they describe

Affixation

The Indonesian language utilises a complex system of affixes (i.e. prefix, infix, suffix and confix (circumfix)). Affixes are applied with certain rules which depend on the initial letter of a base word (BW = base word, eg. a habitual verb, adjective, etc in its simplest form), and/or the sound combination of the second syllable. For example:

  • The affix Ber + ajar (teach) = BeLajar (Note the deletion of ‘R’ and the addition of ‘L’) = to study
  • The affixes Me + ajar + -kan = meNGajarkan (Note the addition of ‘NG’) = to teach (transitive)

By comparison

  • The affix Ber + judi (gamble) = Berjudi (Note that Ber- remains unchanged) = to gamble
  • The affixes Me + judi + -kan = meNjudikan (Note the addition of ‘N’) = to gamble away (money, one’s life, etc)
    Also, depending on the affix used, a word can have different grammatical meanings (e.g. me + makan (memakan) means to eat something (in the sense of digesting it), while di + makan (dimakan) means to be eaten (passive voice), ter + makan (termakan) means to be accidentally eaten. Often two different affixes are used to change the meaning of a word. For example, duduk means to sit down, whereas men + duduk + kan (mendudukkan) means to sit someone/ something down. Men + duduk + i (menduduki) means to sit on something, di + duduk + kan (didudukkan) means to be sat down, diduduki (diduduki) means to be sat on, etc).

As with any language, Indonesian grammar can often present an array of inconsistencies and exceptions. Some base words when combined with two affixes (eg. me + BW + kan) can produce an adjective rather than a verb, or even both. For example, bosan when combined with the affixes me- and -kan produces the word membosankan, meaning boring (adjective) or to bore (someone) (active verb). However, not all base words can be combined with affixes, nor are they always consistent in their subsequent usage and meaning. A prime example is the word tinggal which, when combined with affixes, can change quite dramatically in both meaning and grammatical use:

  • Tinggal (base word (BW) form) = to reside, live (in a place)
  • Meninggal (MeN+BW) = to die, pass away (short form of ‘Meninggal dunia’ below)
  • Meninggal dunia (MeN+BW + world) = to pass away, to die (lit. pass on from the world)
  • Meninggalkan (MeN+BW+kan) = to leave (a place); to leave behind/abandon (someone/ something)
  • Ketinggalan (Ke+BW+an) = to miss (a bus, train, etc); to be left behind
  • Tertinggal (Ter+BW) = to be (accidentally) left behind
  • Ditinggalkan (Di+BW+kan) = to be left behind; to be abandoned
  • Selamat tinggal (word + BW) = goodbye (said to the person staying)

Noun affixes are affixes that form nouns upon addition to base words.

30. Sentence structure
The basic order for Indonesian sentence is; Subject, Verb, Object or Adjective or Adverb. In syntactical term, simply we use the definition of S = NP.VP. A short hand way of saying that pattern is; a sentence consists of Noun Phrase and Verb Phrase. Yet in many cases, the order can be put in various ways, e.g a sentence may come from NP.VP, or NP.NP, or NP.AP or NP.PP. In English, the order strictly lies on S = NP.VP (sometimes VP with to be or linking verb). Below, you will find the differences in syntactical level

Indonesian                                                                              English

NP.VP                                                                                      NP.VP
Paman pergi ke Surabaya tadi malam                                  Uncle went to Surabaya last night
Kakak ke kampus naik motor                                                Brother rides to campus
Ibu ke pasar naik becak                                                         Mother goes to market by peddycap

NP.AdvP                                           NP.VP
Bibi di kebun                                   Aunty is in the garden
Dompetnya di atas meja                His wallet is on the table

NP.AP                                                     NP.VP
Brudin sakit semalam                            Brudin was sick last night
Mereka bising sekali tadi sore            They were very noisy this afternoon

NP.NP                                                                          NP.VP
Orang yang di sana tadi malam Andi                      The man who was there last night is Andy
Kebanyakan warga desa ini nelayan                       Most citizen of this village are sailors

Note: NP: Noun Phrase                  Adv P: Adverbial Phrase
AP: Adjective Phrase                      VP    : Verb Phrase

31. Passive and Object-Focus Construction
The idea of passive is rare in speech, yet it occurs often in academic writing. The passive form of a verb phrase contain this pattern; be + past participle, e.g is bitten, was stolen, can be taken. In Indonesian, passive is shown by adding di- before a verb, e.g dimakan, ditipu, dipermalukan. In most clauses, the subject refers to the “doer”, or actor of the action of the verb (Leech and friends, 2003). When we create a passive sentence, the focus of the sentence goes to Subject. This term is well known as Canonical passive, e.g Buku itu sudah dibaca oleh Andi or The book has been read by Andi.

Passive sentence in Indonesian, the position of focus may go to Object. We call it Object focus or in another word non canonical passive. The term can be defined as a sentence which has semi-active and semi-passive construction, e.g Buku itu sudah saya baca. This phenomenon does not occur in English except in relative clauses.

Indonesian                                                        English
A: Erni menulis makalah ini                            A: Erni writes this paper
P: Makalah ini ditulis oleh erni                       P: This paper is written by Erni
Makalah ini ditulis Erni
Makalah ini Erni tulis*

A: Dia sudah mengirim suratnya?                 A: Has she sent the letter yet?
P: Suratnya sudah dikirim oleh dia?              P: Has the letter been sent by
Suratnya sudah dikirim dia?
Suratnya sudah dia kirim?*
Sudah dia kirim suratnya?*

A: Saya tidak memakan makanan itu              A: I did not eat that food
P: Makanan itu tidak dimakan oleh saya        P: That food was not eaten by me yet
Makanan itu tidak saya makan*
Tidak saya makan makanan itu*

Note: A: Active        P:Passive
* NonCanonical Passive/Object focus

Notice that object focus constructions in Indonesian also occur in the so-called relative clauses in English. While relative clauses of the object pattern type in English do not change the voice of the verb, in Indonesian they do. That is, the antecedent referred to by the relative pronoun becomes an object focus in Indonesian. Compare the following English sentences with their Indonesian counterparts

Indonesian                                                                                        English
Orang tua yang ditemui Rika di sekolah adalah kakeknya        The old man (whom) Rika met at the school was his grand father

*Orang tua yang Rika menemui di  sekolah……..

Indonesian                                                                                          English
Demonstrasi yang saya tonton di TV sangat menakutkan         Demonstration I watched on TV was scary

*Demonstrasi yang saya menonton di TV…….

Errors such as *Orang tua yang Rika menemui di sekolah….or *Demonstrasi yang saya menonton di TV…are common to occur in the speech or writing produced by speakers of English learning Indonesian. Apparently, this is a kind of error known in TEFL as transfer. That is the carrying over of a syntactic structure in English into Indonesian (Kadarisman, 2002:3)

Object-focus construction in Indonesian are different from cleft in English, e.g That is the man that I have met, or That is the key I am looking for. In Indonesian, cleft sentences are equal to object-focus + -lah construction, e.g  Lelaki itulah yang pernah saya temui, and Kunci itulah yang sedang saya cari.

In English, it is also possible to have object focus. Here we will call it Object fronting, e.g  The man I have met, and The key I am looking for. However, it should be noted that object focus in English is a “marked” or unusual structure, whereas object focus in Indonesian as an “unmarked” or common structure. Moreover, object focus in Indonesian makes the sentence “partly passive and hence the term Non-cannonical passive. In contrast, English object fronting does not change the sentence from active into passive. (Kadarisman, 2002:4).

32. Subject prominence in English and –nya in Indonesian
English is a subject prominent language. It means every sentence in English always requires a subject. The subject can be a proper name, pronoun or something else. Yet in Indonesian, the subject may be omitted. This phenomenon can be mentioned as Zero subject sentence. The subject is coverable from the context.

Indonesian                                                            English
Tinggalnya dimana sekarang?                           Where do you stay now?
Pekerjaannya apa?                                               What do you do for living?
Butuhnya apa dariku?                                         What do you need from me?
Uangnya berapa?                                                 How much money do you have?

In the sentence Tinggalnya di mana?, we do not find a subject since the subject needs not to be put there. Yet, this sentence still be understood by Indonesian people. Here zero subjects play role, and it is coverable from the context. In the sentence Where do you stay now?, the subject is definite, and in this case the subject is “you”.

33. Terms of Address
In Indonesia, The term of address is used to differentiate positions of people. It is also used to show politeness in conversation. To address someone who is older than us, we must use the proper address, e.g Bapak, Ibu, Panjennengan. In English, those terms are not used. English only addresses “You” to all of their interlocutors.

Indonesian                                                                                      English
Anda                                            sudah makan?                          Have you had your dinner?
Bapak/Ibu                                                                                       Are you hungry?
Pak Roni/Bu Dewi
Adik/Kakak/Mbak/Mas
Heri/Puspita                                 lapar?

34. Code Switching and Code Mixing
The next discussion in this topic lies in the term of Code Switching and Code mixing that occurs in Indonesian and English spoken community. The existence of these two phenomena is familiar in daily conversations conducted among them. Many Code switching and code mixing’s events occur both in Indonesian people

conversation and English spoken community. Here, Code-switching refers the use of two languages simultaneously or interchangeably (Valdes-Fallis, 1977). Chana (1984) describes code-switching as the juxtaposition within the same speech exchange of passages of speech belonging to two different grammatical systems or subsystems. Code mixing on the other hand can be defined as the involvement of the deliberate mixing of two languages without an associated topic change. The example given by Pfaff (1979) demonstrates this event, a code mixing phenomenon between English and Spanish language.
*I went to the house chiquita
I went to the little house (Pfaff, 1979)

* Saya pergi ke rumah chiquita
Aku pergi ke rumah kecil (Pfaff, 1979)

In this session, we are going to talk shortly about Code mixing phenomenon that occurs in Indonesian. Below, you will find clear examples of code mixing in a conversation between two Javanese;
A: Mana Pak Wendi Lim, kok belum datang?
B: Wah, dalem mboten ngertos, Pak
A: Lho, kemarin kan kamu saya suruh menyampaikan nota saya ke kantornya.
B: Waktu saya sowan ke sana, beliau tidak ada. Sedang tindakan ke Madiun, kata  Mbak Nunung Sekretarisnya.
A: Mbak Nunung bilang apa?
B: Mungkin sore atau malam hari Pak Wendi baru pulang dari Madiun. Lalu bilang,“Notanya ditinggal di sini saja. Kalau Bapak rawuh, nanti saya haturkan” (Kadarisman, 2002:5).

35. Gender versus Kinship Orientation
The idea of gender orientation in English is commonly used in the form of pronoun, both subject and object. It may appear as he, she, him or her. More than that, the gender orientation is also used to differentiate subjects in a sentence. There are many terms to differentiate subject. One is used to differentiate siblings. We find the words “brother” and “sister” is aimed to differentiate male and female siblings, or son or daughter to differentiate male and female child. In Indonesian the term of gender orientation is not well known. When we talk about a child, we commonly say anak without referring what sex the child has. English will say a boy or a girl instead of a child. In this case we can say that English is a strongly gender oriented language. Below you will find example for that:

Indonesian                                                   English
Kemana dia pergi?                                      Where does he go?
Where does she go?

Buku itu milik dia                                         The book belongs to her
The book belongs to him

Anak itu bermain di lapangan                    The boy plays on the playground
The girl plays on the playground

In Indonesian language, the ideas of kinship are very popular. These ideas play basic role in conducting a conversation. It seems the cultural background may support these Ideas. The cultural bound of Indonesian people create a close and respectful relationship with others. Someone who is close to us will be treated differently with someone who has no relative connection. The differentiation of address may be the realization for that.

Indonesian                                                English
Nak/mas/Pak/saudara/Om Deni         mau kemana?                   Where are you going?

COMPARISON BETWEEN ENGLISH AND INDONESIAN

  1. A.    COMPARISON BETWEEN ENGLISH AND INDONESIAN

The similarities and differences occur in the position, the form and also in the meaning of the words. The result of the study shows that there are similarities between English and Indonesian

  1. Based on prepositional meaning place:

(a) Based on the meaning, to indicate the name of city, country, province and place the English prepositional meaning place on, in, and at are similar with Indonesian prepositional meaning place di.

(b) Based on the meaning, the English prepositional meaning place above and over are similar with Indonesian prepositional meaning place di atas to indicate the place that higher than a point.

(c) Based on The Meaning, the English prepositional meaning place under, underneath, beneath and below are similar with Indonesian prepositional meaning place di bawah to indicate the place that lower than a point.

(d) Based on the meaning, the English prepositional meaning place between and among are similar with Indonesian prepositional meaning place di antara to indicate the place on side of a person or thing that has two sides.

2. Based on the function:

Both English and Indonesian explain verb, adjectives, and the other adverbs. There are three kinds of position. They are position in the front, in the middle and in the behind.

3. Both English and bahasa Indonesia use the same 26 letter alphabet, divided similarly between vowels and consonants. Neither language uses accent marks for any of the 26 letters.

4. The ways of arranging sentences and paragraphs are similar.

5.  Both languages use similar methods of classifying word types into nouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, pronouns, etc ,

6.  Both languages form words in the same way by attaching prefixes and suffixes to root words

7. Both languages have transitive & intransitive structures

8. Both languages have passive & active voices – bahasa Indonesia uses “di-”  prefix to indicate the passive voice while English uses the “-ed” suffix.

9. Both languages use similar numbering systems except that bahasa Indonesia uses a decimal(dot) instead of a comma as 3 digit separator (be aware that English is inconsistent with terms for large numbers – American system and British/European system are different)

10. Both languages use similar punctuation marks such as commas, periods, parenthesis, question marks, quotation marks, hyphens, etc.

11. Symbols are nearly the same for both languages

12. Capitalization is nearly the same for both languages

13. There are many words that are identical to both languages and even more that are very similar. See our website lists – 780 identical words and 1,200 that are very similar. Most spellings for names of the world’s countries are the same or very similar in both languages.

14. Actually, bahasa Indonesia and English have the same structures. i.e.:

They   want   to go to  Bali.

              Mereka  mau  pergi ke Bali.

We  like  to study  French.

Kami  suka belajar bahasa Perancis.

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